Motor Innervation And Pattern Of Activity Of Cat Diaphragm

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Vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract arises from

Vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract arises from dorsal motor nucleus while that of the heart largely from nucleus ambiguus in the cat J.H. Hsieh a,b, R.F. Chen c, J.J. Wu b, C.T. Yen c, C.Y. Chai a,) a Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan

L-8 Respiratory System - UMK C.A.R.N.I.V.O.R.E.S. 3

Impulses from these cells activate motor neurons in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord that innervate inspiratory muscles. Those in the cervical cord activate the diaphragm via the phrenic nerves. Those in the thoracic spinal cord activate the external intercostal muscles.

University, Canberra, (Liley, by

Records from a fibre with double innervation. Notefast (rising phase 0-6-0-9 msec) and slow (rising phase 1-4-2 msec) potentials. Miniature slow potentials are preceded by a dot andgiant slow potentials by two dots. Discharge frequency offast potentials was 1-57/sec andofslow potentials 0-68/sec. See also Fig. 4. Obviously it was important to


ATPase activity is reduced, and the pattern of fiber types is converted, in part, to one which resembles that of a slow muscle (4, 6, 56). The pattern of muscle fibers is therefore significantly influenced by the type of innervation. There is now increasing evidence for biochemi-

Essential roles of the acetylcholine receptor -subunit in

motor innervation was prevented either by neurotoxin injection (Braithwaite and Harris, 1979) or neuroectomy (Creazzo and Sohal, 1983). However, these manipulations did not exclude the possibility that some muscle fibers were transiently contacted by motor axons, which could provide neural signals to induce postsynaptic differentiation.

Anatomy and physiology of phrenic afferent neurons

Jun 28, 2017 1965; Hill 2001). Cat diaphragm muscle spindles have rela-tively high resting activity but are silenced during contrac-tion of the diaphragm and can also be activated by low-threshold mechanical stimuli (Bałkowiec et al. 1995). Muscle spindle afferents also increase discharge rate during fatiguing contractions of the rat diaphragm (Hill

Acta Medica Okayama

Fig. 3 Diaphragm of cat, cross-section, succinic dehydrogenase. This muscle does not show any definite correlation between diameter and histochemical reaction of fibers. R: larger red fiber with a high enzyme activity. W: smaller white fiber with a low activity. x250 Fig. 4 Diaphragm of cat, cross-section, lactic dehydrogenase.

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motor response. Higher load activities are different from lower load activities in motor control responses. McGill s studies did not look at the Pelvic Floor. Lower load activities require a carefully timed sequence of muscle activity to meet movement demands. TheraPilates® Physical Therapy Clinic 920 41st Avenue Santa Cruz, CA 95062


diaphragm. (Spikes retouched.) (a) Shows the stimulation of increased activity of the cricothyroid muscle (biphasic pattern) and apnoea when 10-20 per ctnt ether is passed through the isolated nasopharynx and larynx. (b) Laryngospasm and apnoea are still stimulated when ether vapour is passed through the nasopharynx and


AFFERENT ACTIVITY IN THE INTACT PHRENIC NERVE 431 diaphragm retains a homogeneous contraction, despite a diminution of its electrical activity. This might be because the diaphragmatic motor units occupy a rather large area and they are intermingled with each other (Krnjevik and Miledi 1958, Yasargil 1967, Duron and Condamin 1968).

57 Sleep

these conditions, sensory and motor activity revert to those of waking. 57.2 Brain Activity in Sleep Certain patterns of brain wave activity accompany sleep states. Berger [7] first described the high-voltage waves that appeared on the scalp electroencephalograph (EEG) during sleep, in contrast to the lower voltage patterns ap-parent during

March 1, 1982 P7 Vestibular System and Neural Correlates of

(5) Innervation of the periesophageal region of the diaphragm: imp1 ication for studies of control of vomiting (publications 7 and 8). The diaphragm contracts during both the retching and expulsive phases of vomiting; however, the activity of the hiatal region around the esophagus is greatly reduced during expulslon, thereby facil itating rostral

20. Innervation, denervation, and differentiation

Innervation and differentiation 1 ANSC/FSTC 607 Biochemistry and Physiology of Muscle as a Food INNERVATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF MUSCLE I. Organization of the motor neuron and myofibers A. Motoneuron bifurcates into many branches (terminal axons) B. Motor end plates tend to line up in register. II. Polyneural innervation A. General features 1.

Literatura - Knihy a e-knihy Knihy Grada

Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus: a site for evoking simultaneous changes in crural diaphragm activity, lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and fundus tone. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008;294(1):R121-31. 27 Young RL, Page AJ, Cooper NJ, Frisby CL, Blackshaw LA. Sensory and motor innervation of the crural diaphragm by the vagus

The cat model has recently been extended to the rat (42). Loss of REM-atonia is alone insufficient to generate RBI). Presumably, there must also be disinhibition of motor pattern generators in the mesencephalic loco- motor region to result in over-excitation of phasic motor activity with behavioral release during REM (34).

Spinal Interneurons

pattern generators in the spinal cord. A cat with its spinal cord transected can be induced to walk by stimulation of this pattern generator. This stimulation can be produced by activation of spinal afferents (e.g., by putting the cat on a treadmill), injecting L-DOPA intravenously to enhance norepinephrine release in the spinal cord, etc.

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the control of the diaphragm and abdominal Imuscles during vomiting, a fictive vomiting preparation was developed using paralyzed, decerebrate animals (31). Fictive vomiting was defined by a characteristic pattern of co-activation of abdominal and phrenic nerves, elicited by emetic agents,

Functional Morphology and Physiology of Slowly Adapting

strained motor activity. Adrian s studies were followed by those of Knowlton and Larrabee (1946), in which they analyzed the discharge pattern of pulmonary volume re-ceptors. Knowlton and Larrabee (1946) identified two dis-tinct pulmonary volume receptors: SARs and rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). It was thus 65 years after the

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activity, with non-REM-sleep dreams tending to be more thought-like and less action filled [28]. 57.3 Respiratory Activity Sleep states exert a profound influence on respiratory pat- terns. It is worth noting that the respiratory musculature includes the diaphragm, as well as a large number of other

REVIEW Blackwell Science, Ltd The diaphragm: two

the crural diaphragm (De Troyer et al. 1982). In the cat, Sant Ambrogio et al. (1963) showed that electrical activity of a hemi-diaphragm requires intact C 4 − 6 root-lets with the vertebral (or crural) region mainly receiv-ing its innervation from C 6 and the costal region from C 5. However, later more refined topographical map-

Innervation of the Cat's Soleus Muscle

In the cat soleus muscle, there are about 50 group Ia fibers, 50 group II fibers, 40 group Ib fibers, and 100 (-motoneurons compared with only 150 -motoneurons. This means the muscle has 240 nerve fibers for control and only 150 for contraction. Clearly the bias is in favor of control. Table 16-1 Innervation of the Cat's Soleus Muscle