Robust Direct Effect Of Carbon Dioxide On Tropical Circulation And Regional Precipitation

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Earth s Climate System: A 21st Century Grand Challenge

Carbon Dioxide Trends: 100yr lifetime direct effect of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and 60% is Implement rigorous and robust climate observations.

Regional r esponse s of surface ozone in Europe to the

Regional r esponse s of surface ozone in Europe to the location of high -latitude blocks and subtropical ridges C arlos Ordóñez 1 , D avid Barriopedro 1,2 , R icardo García -Herrera 1,2 , Pedro

The Role of Regional SST Warming Variations in the Drying of

However, the indirect effect appears to overcome the direct effect. An additional sim-ulationinwhichCO 2 absorption in the longwave spec-trum is increased is performed for comparison. In section 2 we detail the models, data, and experi-mental setup. Section 3 describes the results of the ex-periments, focusing on precipitation, sea level pressure

The Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds in Southern Africa Field

circulation above the cool waters of the oceanic up-welling zone (Tyson and Preston-Whyte 2000). Low-level Sc clouds increase the net amount of outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), inducing the most negative radiative effect of any cloud regime (Boucher et al. 2013). The proper -

Advancing Climate Dynamics Toward Reliable Regional Climate

tropical overturning circulation will slow down to make up the difference between the rates of increase in water vapor and global precipitation. The Walker circulation slowdown is indeed robust across models (Vecchi and Soden, 2007a) and observed in the sea level pressure (SLP) record since 1860 (Vecchi et al., 2006). The change

Archive

(2013): Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation. In: Nature Geosci. DOI 10.1038/ngeo1799 Here, we assess the effect of a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on tropical circulation and precipitation by analysing results from a suite of simulations from multiple state-of-the-art

CMIP5 Simulations of Low-Level Tropospheric Temperature and

CMIP5 models project variable changes in daily precipitation over the tropical Americas. The most consistent is increased rainfall in the intertropical convergence zone in December February (DJF) and June August (JJA) and decreased precipitation over NAMS in JJA. 1. Introduction The presence of a monsoonal type of circulation in-

Global climate change and carbon management in

circulation induced the land-use degradation in the re gion. After four centuries of urban life, such 'abrupt cli matic change caused abandonment of Tell Leilan, regional desertion, and collapse of the Akkadian empire based in southern Mesopotamia'. There was a synchro nous collapse in adjacent regions as well, suggesting that

Robust observations of land-to-atmosphere feedbacks using the

Robust observations of land-to-atmosphere feedbacks using the information flows of FLUXNET Tobias Gerken 1,2,6 *, Benjamin L. Ruddell 2 , Rong Yu 3 , Paul C. Stoy 1,7 and Darren T. Drewry 4,5

How do variations in the temporal distribution of rainfall

surface-atmosphere exchanges of carbon dioxide, water, and energy now being made at hundreds of research sites glob-ally (Baldocchi, 2008). Flux tower data allow direct quan-tification of NEP and its decomposition into GPP and RE (Reichstein et al., 2005) and make it possible to analyse re-lationships between ecosystem fluxes and rainfall charac-

Regional responses of surface ozone in Europe to the location

val)Wm2 to direct radiative forcing (RF) since the pre-industrial era (Myhre et al., 2013). There is also robust ev-idence that tropospheric ozone can reduce the natural up-take of carbon dioxide (CO2/ by decreasing plant produc-tivity (Sitch et al., 2007), although quantitative estimates of

ClimaConf - ANR

Bony S., G. Bellon, D. Klocke, S. Fermepin, S. Sherwood and S. Denvil, (2013) : Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional preciptation. Nature Geoscience, in press. Brient F and S Bony (2012) : How may low cloud properties simulated in the current climate influence low-cloud feedback under global warming ?

Florida s Climate: Past, Present, and Future

has a direct impact on Florida s temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone numbers but is decreased in combination with the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2)

Regional Climate Variability Under Model Simulations of Solar

method is analogous to work on the statistics of tropical cyclone formation in Emanuel et al. (2006). Our approach examines the effect of solar geoengineering on daily regional summertime temperature and precipitation variability in the Northern Hemisphere using multiple large ensembles from a coupled atmosphere-land model with a slab ocean.

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

tion with the largest decreases in precipitation. The largest increases (up to ∼0.75kgcm −2 yr −1 ) occur across tropical Africa and Indonesia, where NPP is already high, and both temperature and precipitation

Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical

Robust direct effect of carbon dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation Sandrine Bony1*, Gilles Bellon2, Daniel Klocke3, Steven Sherwood4, Solange Fermepin1 and Sébastien Denvil1 Predicting the response of tropical rainfall to climate change remains a challenge1. Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide

The First State of the Climate Projections Based on Carbon

(e.g. carbon dioxide) and short-lived (e.g., soot) gases and particles affect the climate, previous projections of future climate, such as the IPCC reports, have focused largely on the long-lived gases.

Multimodel precipitation responses to removal of U.S. sulfur

decline by as much as 80% from their present-day value [van Vuuren et al., 2011]. As sulfur dioxide emissions and thus sulfate aerosols are phased out, their removal is expected to affect global and regional climate, yet we still lack a quantitative understanding of the temperature and precipitation responses to changes in regional SO 2

CHALLENGES IN QUANTIFYING CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL WATER CYCLE

precipitation minus evaporation (P E) patterns, the pronounced spatial structure and sharp gradients in precipitation change, and increases of extreme pre-cipitation. We also discuss the challenges inherent in combining an incomplete observational record with imperfect climate models to detect anthropogenic changes in the water cycle.

Global warming

The role of General Circulation Models (GCMs) has become predominantly important as the practical interest in regional impacts from anthropogenic greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) grows. This first report documents the quality of GCMs as a tool for describing and predicting global warming and the related geographical

Hydrology Within Tropical Natural Forests: Implications for

parameterization and evaluation of regional or global ecosystem models (Mueller et al. 2011). Synchro-nous measurement of latent heat, sensible heat, and carbon dioxide (CO 2) fluxes with EC systems allows study of the interactions among key variables of the global water and carbon budgets. This is an essential

The direct and ocean-mediated influence of Asian orography on

However, in contrast to precipitation, this TC response does not appear to be strongly affected by the atmosphere ocean coupling. Connections between the direct atmospheric circulation response to Asian orography, ocean circulation changes, and these various effects on precipitation and tropical cyclones are analyzed and discussed.

CHALLENGES IN QUANTIFYING CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL WATER CYCLE

global-mean precipitation increases by only 2% 3% K 1 of warming in climate models (the hydrological sen-sitivity ; see Fig. 1). Broadly, the radiative effect of greenhouse gas forcing reduces the global precipitation increase driven by warming itself (e.g., Bony et al. 2013), while the direct radiative effect of aerosols that scatter

TABLE OF CONTENTS - Long Point Biosphere

leverage the regional expertise of team members. Additional wetlands outside of the probabilistic design are also being sampled, enabling us to calibrate indicators at both the least-impaired and most-degraded ends of the anthropogenic disturbance gradient identified by Danz et al. (2005). These ^benchmark sites also include

Anthropogenic aerosols dominate forced multidecadal Sahel

93 regional precipitation changes (Ganguly et al., 2012; Li et al., 2018). Thus, there is a need to 94 study these components of the response together to assess their relative contributions to the AA-95 forced portion of past Sahel drought. 96 We seek here to robustly characterize the climate response of Sahel precipitation to AA

Oce THE OFFICIAL MAGAZINE OF THE OCEANOGRAPHY SOCIETYanography

ence AMOC intensity through its effect on the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (e.g., Rahmstorf, 1995; Häkkinen, 1999). AMOC strength controls oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide in the North Atlantic, suggesting that salinity may be influential in determining future climate. Despite the importance of salinity to

Primer at - Cell

of carbon dioxide ). What is likely to be unprecedented geologically, however, is the speed of CO 2 emissions and consequential rate of warming via human amplification of the greenhouse effect. It is also important to understand that there is relatively little scientific debate on the impact of CO 2 on the energy balance of the Earth. Not

EFFECTSOF GREENHOUSEGAS EMISSIONS ON WORLD AGRICULTURE,FOOD

Projected changes in mean global temperature and precipitation General circulation model Year when Temperature Precipitation calculated change ( C) (%) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigna 1996 1997 1.0 1.3 Max Planck Instituteb 1990 1991 1.1 2.1 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratoryc 1989 1.3 2.8 Hadley Centred 1995 1.8 2.5

Interactions between Climate and Air Quality

after carbon dioxide (CO. 2) and methane (CH. 4), and aerosols exerting a net cooling influence (Forster et al., 2007). The major precursors to O. 3. that fuel rapid photochemical build-up of O. 3. during regional air pollution episodes are nonmethane volatile organic - compounds (NMVOC) and nitrogen oxides (NO. x), whereas the global burden of

1 Anthropogenic aerosols dominate forced multidecadal Sahel 2

89 AA forcing causes direct-atmospheric and ocean-mediated responses that have different, and in 90 places competing, roles in regional precipitation changes (Ganguly et al., 2012; Li et al., 2018). 91 Thus, there is a need to study these components of the response together to assess their relative

Observingcarboncycle climatefeedbacks fromspace

in the precipitation patterns, changes to wetlands, or prolifera-tions in the carbon availability to methanogens (22). Current data are insufficient to provide a definitive conclusion (21). Speaking broadly but accurately, carbon science has been limited by data. Critical regional scales where climate variation

ECOLE DOCTORALE DES SCIENCES DE L ENVIRONNEMENT D'ILE DE

dioxide on tropical circulation and regional precipitation, Nat. Geosci., 6(6), 447 451. Byrne, M.P., and P.A. O Gorman (2015) The Response of Precipitation Minus Evapotranspiration to Climate

Regional responses of surface ozone in Europe to the location

5 to 95% confidence interval) W m 2 to direct radiative forcing (RF) since the pre-industrial era (Myhre et al., 2013). There 15 is also robust evidence that tropospheric ozone can reduce the natural uptake of carbon dioxide (CO 2) by decreasing plant

Aerosol effect on climate extremes in Europe under different

model. We particularly focus on the effect of changes in anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO 2, the main precursor of sulfate aerosol) and black and organic carbon (BC and OC, respectively) emissions on temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe. We compare these climate extremes as simulated for present climate conditions with three scenar-

Impacts of 1.5°C of Global Warming on Natural and - IPCC

3.3.3 Regional Precipitation, Including Heavy Land-Based Carbon Dioxide Climate models project robust1 differences in regional climate 2,

Clouds, Circulation and Climate Sensitivity

Weakening of the tropical overturning circulation in response to increased CO2 Even in the absence of surface temperature changes and land-sea contrasts (robust direct effect) Significant fraction of long-term changes, especially in convective regions Bony et al., Nature Geoscience, 2013 in press RCP8.5 end 21C AQUA

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY

Broadly, the radiative effect 109 of greenhouse gas forcing reduces the global precipitation increase driven by warming 110 itself (e.g., Bony et al., 2013), while the direct radiative effect of aerosols that scatter 111 rather than absorb sunlight does not influence the rate at which precipitation increases 112 with warming.

Minister Wong s Reply to Senator Fielding s Three Questions

Cognisant of these facts, Senator Steve Fielding has posed three direct questions to the Minister for Climate Change, Senator Penny Wong, in order to clarify whether or not evidence exists that human carbon dioxide emissions are causing dangerous global warming, as alleged by the UN s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Crop and pasture response to climate change

results are found to be robust across a variety of experimental settings, such as controlled environment closed chambers, greenhouses, open and closed field top chambers, and free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiments. Elevated CO 2 concentrations stimulate

Interpreting the inter-model spread in regional precipitation

work of analysis of precipitation and circulation change proposed by Bony et al. (2013). We examine in particular the relative roles of carbon dioxide direct effect and climate warming, as well as dynamical and thermodynamical pro-cesses, in the spread of tropical precipitation projections. The paper is structured as follows. Section2 describes