Calcium And Signal Transduction

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Activation of GPCR, Calcium Release

intracellular signal transduction pathways which ultimately lead to different cellular responses, most of which are linked to calcium signaling. Consequently, there are a number of cell-based, high throughput screening (HTS) assays used for drug

Calcium Signaling Network in Plants

Figure 2. A generic pathway for calcium regulated gene expression and the stress response. The calcium level increases in response to the stimuli. The increased level of Ca 2+ is recognised by some Ca ‑sensors or calcium‑binding proteins, which can activate many calcium dependent protein kinases.


Chin et al. (1998) were the first to identify a signal transduction pathway that could link the increased calcium levels during endurance exercise to the fast-to-slow muscle fibre phenotype changes that occur as a result of exercise. They used cyclosporine A to block the calcium-responsive calcineurin signal transduction pathway.

Role of Calcium in Signal Transduction of Commelina Cells

The involvement of a Ca'+-based signal transduction pathway in guard cell responses has been the subject of considerable interest (reviewed by Mansfield et al., 1990). Elevated levels of extracellular calcium ([Ca'+],) directly ' Current address: Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY Copyright © 2021 Structural basis for

Calcium signaling is necessary for various cellular functions. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is an essential component for the transduction of calcium signals and maintenance of calcium ho-meostasis (1, 2). In addition to acting as a second messenger in the process of signal transduction, calcium can also serve as a first mes-

Noise Enhanced Hormonal Signal Transduction Through

brane signal transduction from extracellular fluc-tuating hormonal stimuli to repetitive spikes of Ca and investigate the effect of noise on the i transduction of subthreshold stimuli. This non-ex-citable cell model is still the only one exhaustively examined driven by dynamical stimuli and found recent findings. 2. Model 2.1.

Calcium Signaling - Cell

tein conformations are the two universal tools of signal transduction. Cells invest much of their energy to effect changes in Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca ]). Underlying the speed and effectiveness of Ca2+ is the 20,000-fold gradient main-tained by cells between their intracellular (?100 nM free) and extracellular (mM) concentrations.

The role of calcium in follicle-stimulating hormone signal

skeleton (2) or FSH signal transduction mechanisms (3-5), neither basal cytosolic calcium levels nor the effects of FSH stimulation on cytosolic calcium concentrations in Sertoli cells have been reported. We have therefore studied the cy- tosolic calcium level in resting and FSH-stimulated immature rat Sertoli cells in vitro.

Signal transduction in monocytes and granulocytes measured by

evaluated for effects on early (calcium fluxes) and late (oxidative burst) steps of phagocyte signal transduction pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS Reagents Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with or without calcium and magnesium (PBS-Ca or PBS, re- spectively) and fetal calf serum (FCS) were from Gibco (Paisley, Scotland, UK).

Role of PKCB in signal transduction for the DMARRS - Longdom

-mediated calcium efflux in intestinal epithelial cells. Role of PKCb in Signal Transduction for the 1,25D. 3-MARRS Receptor (ERp57/PDIA3) in Steroid Hormone-Stimulated Calcium Extrusion Sakara Tunsophon and Ilka Nemere* Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and the Center for Integrated BioSystems, Utah State University, Logan UT, USA

A Kinetic Model for G protein-coupled Signal Transduction in

method to the design of experiments for a complex calcium signal transduction pathway, where we have found that the parameter estimates obtained from the robust design are better than those obtained from an optimal design. Professor Michael I. Jordan Dissertation Committee Chair

Calmodulin as a versatile calcium signal transducer in plants

signal transduction mechanisms. Undoubtedly, the biochemical properties, expression dynamics and spatial distribution of the Ca 2 + sensors contribute to the specificity in the cellular processes evoked in response to distinct Ca signals. Page 36 Tuesday, May 29, 2001 4:44 PM

Calcium Modulation of Adherens and Tight Junction Function

Conclusions With the widespread use of calcium channel blockers as clinical treatments for hypertension, which is a risk factor for stroke, the exact role of calcium in modulating BBB integrity needs to be elucidated. (Stroke. 2002;33:1706-1711.) Key Words: blood-brain barrier calcium endothelium signal transduction stroke

Phytochrome signal transduction pathways are regulated by

Three signal transduction pathways, dependent on cGMP and/or calcium, are utilized by phytochrome to control the expression of genes required for chloroplast development and anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant cells. For example, cbs is controlled by a cGMP-dependent pathway, cab is controlled by a calcium-dependent

Calcium signal transduction and cellular control mechanisms

Calcium signal transduction and cellular control mechanisms Michael J. Berridge* The Babraham Institute, The Babraham Campus, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK Received 19 August 2004; accepted 23 August 2004 Available online 11 September 2004 Keywords: Ca2+ signal; Transduction; Mechanism 1. Introduction The 8th Meeting of the European Calcium Society,

Calcium influx modulates expression of matrix

operated calcium influx. These results suggest a role for calcium-mediated signal transduction in the expression of metalloproteinases. Aberrant regulation at the genetic and biochemical levels is an important defect that underlies cancer progression and me- tastasis. One example of ectopic activity of an otherwise normal

Signal Transduction Pathways Associated With Contraction

The relative inaccessibility of intracellular calcium could be the basis for maturational changes that occur stores in the newborn is associated with age-related in circular smooth muscle cells of the antrum. differences in signal transduction pathways. Materials and Methods Animals T Adult cats of both sexes weighing between 2.5 and 5

A Frequency Analysis on Calcium T-type Signaling in the

rons, Calcium Signaling, Calcium T-type Channels, Calcium Markov Process, Calcium Monte Carlo Simulation. I. INTRODUCTION Ionized calcium (CAI) is perhaps the most typical signal transduction element in all of biology. In general, calcium signals (i.e., changes in intracellular calcium concentration Ca2+ i over the time) are regarded as

Principles of Calcium Signal Generation and Transduction in

signal transduction by calcium sensor proteins. CALCIUM-PERMEABLE CHANNELS Calcium-permeable channels are usually divided into two main groups: voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels. However

Angiogenesis: Role of Calcium-Mediated Signal Transduction

signal transduction pathways, such as proliferation, invasion, and differentiation (10-13). The role of calcium in regulation of angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro has not been defined previously. Carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) is an inhibitor of non-voltage-gated calcium channels including ionophore channels (14),

The long tale of the calcium activated Cl channels in

Figure 1. Olfactory signal transduction. The transduction current is generated upon activation of the olfactory receptor (OR) by an odor-ant in the cilia of an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) that triggers a series ofevents (indicated by green arrows) that lead to action poten-tial firing that is sent to the olfactory bulb (OB) in the brain.

1 uscarinic acetyicholine receptors: signal transduction

Figure 1. Summary of signal transduction pathways modulated by muscarinic receptors. A) Muscarinic ml, m3, or m5 receptors modulate a number of effectors depending on the cell type studied (see text). Included in this diagram are: phospholipase D (PLD) regulated by calcium influx and protein kinase C and possibly cou-

Calcium signaling in plants

Figure 1. The localization and mobilization of Ca2+ during signal transduction in animal and plant cells. This cartoon of a generalized cell uses a pseudocolor scale (as indicated in the scale bar), in order to indicate the calcium concentration within the cytoplasm and organelles of this cell.

Signal transduction in electrically stimulated articular

Apr 15, 2008 calcium-related signal transduction pathways in the mecha-nism of cartilage matrix protein induction and metalloprotei-nase suppression by capacitively coupled electric fields in adult bovine articular chondrocytes. The data show that the effects of capacitively coupled electrical stimulation are blocked by verapamil, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro

Angiogenesis: Role of calcium-mediated signal transduction

of a variety of transmembrane signal transduction pathways, such as protein phosphorylation (5), ion flux (6), and phos-pholipid metabolism (7), which maybe interconnected. For example, activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 requires influx of calcium in the range that occurs in response to activation ofreceptor-operatedcalciumchannels(8

The NFP locus of Medicago truncatula controls an early step

factor signal transduction also control the establishment of an arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, the nfp mutant shows a wild-type mycorrhizal phenotype. These data indicate that the NFP locus controls an early step of Nod factor signal transduction, upstream of previously identified genes and specific to nodulation.

Chapter 15 Signal Transduction and G Protein Coupled Receptors

Apr 12, 2017 Signal Transduction and G Protein Coupled Receptors 15.1 Signal Transduction: From Extracellular Signal to Cellular Response All cells respond to extracellular signals/stimuli that activate plasma membrane or cytosolic receptors. Activated receptors function as transcription factors or activate G protein switches that regulate a variety of

Calcium Signaling Series

he bivalent cation calcium (Ca2+) represents one of the most ubiquitous signal transduction molecules known.1 It mediates a diverse array of biological functions including muscle contraction, cellular exocytosis, neuronal activity, and triggering of programmed cell death. Since the first observa-

Environmental Factor - May 2013: The role of calcium

research on calcium signaling in T cells. (Photo courtesy of Steve McCaw) NIEHS Laboratory of Signal Transduction Chief John Cidlowski, Ph.D., left, and Special Assistant to the Scientific Director Joel Abramowitz, Ph.D., enjoyed watching the video footage of immune cells in action. (Photo courtesy of Steve McCaw) Calcium Regulation Group

Reversible Translocation and Activity-Dependent Localization

EI-hand calcium binding proteins that have been shown to be involved in calcium-dependent signal transduction processes, such as cyclic nucleotide metabolism, neurotransmitter release, modulation of ion channel function, and regulation of gene ex-pression (Braunewell and Gundelfinger, 1999; Burgoyne and Weiss, 2001).

Choosing the right assay to monitor your signal transduction

Treatments to cells that induce or inhibit signal transduction can ultimately result in cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis or senescence. Assays for proliferation and viability range from the direct measurement of cellular ATP to the use of reagents such as MTS or resazurin to determine the overall reducing capacity of the culture.

Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensor IRE1 in Cellular

May 08, 2020 in signal transduction from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to nucleus during misfolded protein accumulation/ER stress [2,3]. In yeasts, IRE1 is the sole UPR sensor which governs the response to ER stress [4]. In metazoans, IRE1 is one of the three distinct UPR sensors, and it exists in two isoforms IRE1 /ERN1 and IRE1 /ERN2.

Role of Calcium in Signal Transduction of Commelina Guard Cells

The involvement of a Ca2+-based signal transduction pathway in guard cell responses has been the subject of considerable interest (reviewed by Mansfield et al., 1990). Elevated levels of extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]e) directly 1 Current address: Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

Parturition and Hypocalcemia Blunts Calcium Signals in Immune

stores are a more sensitive measure of calcium stresses in transition cow. This decrease in PBMC intracellular Ca stores before parturition and the development of hypocalcemia contributes to periparturient immune suppression. Key words: endoplasmic reticulum, flow cytometry, immunosuppression, signal transduction INTRODUCTION

Topical Review Calcium and Signal Transduction

acter of the Ca2+ signal is the most important: while essential to the viability of the cells, it can also easily become a conveyor of doom. Keywords: Calcium, signal transduction, calcium signaling. WHY CALCIUM? The topic of Ca2+ and signal transduction will be cov-ered here in a succint way. A number of comprehensive

Gastric Chief Cells: Receptors and Signal- Transduction

[although the calcium chelation step is not essential for the preparation of dispersed cells (Raufman and Raffanielo, April 1990, unpublished observation)]; and (c) the limited life span (hours) of cells in terms of maintaining an adequate secretory re- sponse. Signal-Transduction Pathways

Characterization of CCKA receptor affinity states and Ca2

calcium signal transduction activated by CCK has yet to be determined. The objectives of this study were to identify the presence of high- and low-affinity CCK A receptors on vagal nodose ganglia by performing intra-cellular Ca2 studies using various CCK A-receptor agonists and antagonists and to characterize the intra-

Robust design of biological experiments

The second example, of a calcium signal transduction model, is a more realistic case of the need for experiment design in high-throughput biological research. The model cap-tures some of the important kinetics of the system, but is far from complete. We require a reasonably accurate model to make further predictions about the system and drive a set

Stress Signaling II: Calcium Sensing and Signaling

tions between various signal transduction pathways, constitute a tightly regulated signaling network that induces specific stress responses to improve plant survival. Keywords Calcineurin B-like calcium calcium-dependent protein kinase calcium sensing calcium signatures calmodulin stress signaling