Significance In Replication Of The Terminal Nucleotides Of The Flavivirus Genome
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IJFBS 2016; 3(3): 29-41 reference to the genetic diversity of
RNA-RNA interaction and genome replication . Inside the coding region downstream of the translation initiation codon, AUG, a stable hairpin (cHP) is also found in DENV genome which is necessary for viral RNA replication . The 3 -UTR of DENV is approximately 450 nucleotides in length and can be divided into three specific domains.
Mechanism of Type IA Topoisomerases - MDPI
Oct 17, 2020 Normal cell growth requires replication of the genome and regulated transcription. Certain enzymes play crucial roles in these vital cellular processes. For example, DNA polymerase enzymes are essential for DNA replication  and RNA polymerases are required for transcription . Because
STUDIES ON THE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF WILD^TYPE AND ATTENUATED
1.3.3 Processing of the flavivirus polypeptide 15 1.3.4 Flavivirus structural proteins 18 1.3.5 Non-Structural proteins 25 1.3.6 Virion morphology and physicochemical properties 31 1.3.7 Flavivirus replication in cell culture 32 1.4 Japanese encephalitis 33 1.4.1 History of Japanese encephalitis 33
MicroRNA-like viral small RNA from Dengue virus 2
Jan 29, 2014 Significance Dengue virus has emerged as one of the most significant arboviruses, affecting millions of people around the world. Here, we show the production of a functional microRNA-like small RNA encoded by Dengue virus, which negatively regulates virus replication by targeting the viral nonstructural protein 1 sequences.
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Volume 17 Number 12 1989 by comparative amino acid sequence
The total length of IBV genome is 27 6O8 nucleotides, excluding 3'-terminal poly(A). Of these, about 8 OOO nucleotides at the 3'-end are dedicated to coding virion and some snail non-structural proteins, expressed as a nested set of 3'co-terminal mRNAs, with only the 5'-terminal unique part probably translated in each (2). The 5'-terminal part of
Cell, Vol. 87, 331 342, October 18, 1996, Copyright 1996 by
During replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), the final 1995; Steinku¨hler et al. 1996). steps of polyprotein processing are performed by a The N-terminal domain of NS3 has been found to contain the catalytic motif of a trypsin-like serine pro-viral proteinase located in the N-terminal one-third of
Significance in Replication of the Terminal Nucleotides of
gene, which are required for replication, but otherwise it is identical to KUN genomic RNA (22). In addition to the con-served Flavivirus 5- and 3-terminal trinucleotides, there are conserved complementary sequences within the KUN core coding region and 3 UTR (5 nucleotides 137 to 144 and 3 nucleotides 97 to 104, respectively) that are able to base
Protease-dependent virus tropism and pathogenicity
The significance for in vivo pathogenicity of viral glycoprotein activation by host cell proteases was first demonstrated for NDV (Refs 3, 8). There is a wide variety of strains of this virus, and they differ markedly in tissue tropism and virulence in their hosts, the chicken and chicken embryo. These differ-
NF90 Binds the Dengue Virus RNA 3# Terminus and is a Positive
Flavivirus genomic RNAs do not have a 39-terminal poly(A) tract; rather, the viral RNAs have a 39 UTR (400 700 nucleotides in length) that is predicted to form significant secondary structure, with a stable terminal 39 stem loop structure (39 SL). This structure was first proposed by Grange et al.  by analyzing the cDNA
A macrocyclic HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor interacts with
replication and hence viral replication. It is composed of an N-term inal serine protease domain and a C-terminal helicase/NTPase domain. For full activity, the protease requires the NS4A protein as a cofactor. HCV NS3/4A protease is a prime target for developing direct-acting antiviral agents. First-generation NS3/4A protease
Molecular basis for specific viral RNA recognition and 2' ‑O
The flavivirus genome consists in a (+) sense single-stranded RNA of ~11 kb with a type 1 cap structure, followed by the strictly conserved dinucleotide sequence AG : 5 -m7G pppA m2 -O-G-3 (4, 5). Addition of the cap moiety to the 5 end of the viral genome is crucial for viral replication because this structure ensures efficient
Clinical Signiﬁcance of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes
XIII concentrate (24). The HCV genome is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the generaPes-tivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability throughout the viral genome (25). Based on the
35 Estimated Value of Hidden Markov Model Parameters for NS5
genus Flavivirus [1, 2]. Five serotypes of the virus have been found, all of which can cause the full spectrum of disease [3, 4]. Nevertheless, scientists are finding their understanding of dengue virus may be simplistic, as rather than distinct antigenic groups there appears to be a continuum .
Molecular archaeology of Flaviviridae untranslated regions
Viruses in the genera Flavivirus and Pestivirus (family Flaviviridae) share a common genome organization and coding strategy . The enveloped virions of 50 60 nm contain single-stranded positive-sense RNA genomes 10,000 nucleotides in length, packed into the capsid structure. The open reading frame (ORF)
have been recognized as essential elements for genome replication, translation and/or pathogenesis, such as the well conserved stem-loop structure formed by the terminal ~100 nucleotides of the 3 -UTR (3 SL) and the pentanucleotide (PN) motif located in the top loop
Conclusion: The chimeric RNA gradually evolves replication fitness through adaptive mutations in genes encoding two repli-cation proteins. Significance: This study provides a possible pathway for generating attenuated dengue virus vaccine. Flavivirus NS3 and NS5 are required in viral replication and 5-capping.
2348-7941 Perspectives of antiviral RNA interference (RNAi
considered RNAi mechanism as a convincing method for treatment of flavivirus infection and to control the transmission of flavivirus by the vector [23, 24]. This article is an endeavor to review the perspectives of the functional significance of antiviral RNA interference as a potent agent of controlling dengue infection in the vector.
Replication cycle An overview of the flavivirus replication cycle is schematically illustrated in Figure 4. The first step is attachment of the virion to the host cell in a non-specific manner.111-115 Subsequently, the viral E protein is believed to bind with high specificity to an unknown cellular receptor(s) on the cell surface.
The single-stranded RNA genome of HCV is approximately 10000 nucleotides in length and has a single open reading frame that codes for both structural and non-structural proteins. The viral proteins produced by this single gene are subject to polyprotein processing to make up to ten polypeptides. The structural proteins
Virology Journal BioMed Central
against the diversity and evolution of DENV genome. DENV belongs to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, possessing a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, which is approximately 10,700 bases in length and con-tains a single open reading frame . A single polyprotein translated from the viral RNA is cleaved into 3 structural
Functional RNA Elements in the Dengue Virus Genome
A conserved feature of DENV and other flavivirus genomes is the presence of inverted complementary sequences at the ends of the RNA that mediate long-range RNA-RNA interactions [10,11,17,30,49 51]. The significance of genome cyclization during viral replication is now beginning to be uncovered.
Rapid Communication Direct repeats in the flavivirus 3
Previously, direct repeats (DRs) of 20 70 nucleotides were identified in the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR) of flavivirus sequences. To address their functional significance, we have manually generated a pan-flavivirus 3′UTR alignment and correlated it with the corresponding predicted RNA secondary structures.
Dynamic RNA structures in the dengue virus genome
A conserved feature of DENV and other flavivirus genomes is the presence of inverted complementary sequences at the ends of the RNA that mediate long-range RNA-RNA interac-tions.23,52,53,68,86-88 The significance of genome cyclization dur-ing viral replication is now beginning to be uncovered. At least
Pervasive tertiary structure in the dengue virus RNA genome
Significance RNA viruses usurp and reprogram host cells using short RNA genomes. RNA viruses encode the information required for their replication in both their primary sequences and higher-order structures formed when the RNA genome strand folds back on itself, but the extent of higher-order structure has remained unclear.