ES Cells Without Teratomas

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Will embryonic stem cells be a useful source of dopamine

bers of ES cells are transplanted into an organ like the brain, they grow into every cell type and form tumor-like masses called teratomas, eventually killing their host. How can ES cells be restricted to produce useful cells without overgrowing? In their article in this issue of PNAS, Bjo¨rklund et al. (3) have transplanted

From teratomas to embryonic stem cells: discovering pluripotency

EC cells are degenerate ES cells that have adapted to tumour growth. EpiS cells, derived from the epiblast stage51,52, are primed for differentiation, whereas ES cells correspond to a more primitive, naive state of the ICM48. Human ES cells resemble mouse EpiS cells51,52. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to iPS cells by the

Teratomas Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells as Models for

some of our recent data using ES cells as a model for Alzheimer s disease. Teratomas in the study of tumorigenesis: This section will address the recent novel unifyi ng theory of teratoma, germ cell tumor, and other tumor formation. We also introduce teratomas as substitute platforms for studying tumor growth and behavior. 2.

Efficient and Stable Transgene Expression in Human Embryonic

Aug 02, 2018 Genetic manipulation of human ES cells using nonviral strategies would afford significant benefits. Although conditions have been established for stable gene transfer following plas-mid-based delivery into mouse ES cells, only limited success has been achieved using nonviral vectors in human ES cells [16 20].

Vol 439 12 January 2006 doi:10.1038/nature04277 LETTERS

passages. The ES cells differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in teratomas, and showed germ line transmission. Single-blastomere-biopsied embryos developed to term without a reduction in their developmental capacity. The ability to generate human ES cells without the destruction of

Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three

Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors H. Stachelscheid 1 *,A. Wulf-Goldenberg 2 , K. Eckert 2 , J. Jensen 3 ,J. Edsbagge 3 , P.Björquist 3 , M. Rivero 3 ,

Selective apoptosis of pluripotent mouse and human stem cells

to ectopic sites (Martin, 1980). Similarly, in transplants of cells derived from ES cells, the formation of teratomas appears to correlate with the degree to which the cells are differentiated and enriched in cell culture before grafting (Deacon et al., 1998; Bjorklund et al., 2002). The loss of teratoma forming potential is

-Catenin signaling is required for neural differentiation of

adult animal. The ability of these cells to adopt multiple fates makes ES cells prime candidates for use in stem cell therapies. However, unmodified ES cells cannot be used in regenerative therapies because they form teratomas after transplantation. In successful transplantation studies, ES cells are

Monkeying around with cardiac progenitors: hope for the future

muscle cells by treatment with defined cytokines and signaling molecules. Most importantly, purified SSEA+ progenitor cells from tionRhesus monkey ES cells engrafted into nonhuman primate hearts, in which torthey differentiated into cardiac cells without forming teratomas. These findings ductionmove the field

news and views Stem-cell competition

ES cells (and mouse MAPCs) need LIF for growth; other cultured cells do not, so this seems to be a unique feature of pluripotent stem cells. The expression of Oct-4 in ES cells correlates with their versatility; if MAPCs are similar to ES cells one might expect comparable expression of Oct-4. Germ cells are eggs or sperm.

Branching ducts similar to mesonephric ducts or ureteric buds

duced from ES cells have been restricted. For ES cell-derived kidney cells and structures, limited information is available. Thomson et al. (43) reported the induction of mesonephric nephron-like structures in teratoma tissues originating from human ES cells. This is a noteworthy step in the ability to

Non Cell-Autonomous Reprogramming of - Stem Cells Journals

from rat limbal iPSCs and mouse ES cells by hanging drop cul-ture method [19]. Briefly, rat limbal iPSCs and mouse ES cells were suspended in IMDM containing 20% FBS and cultured in 50 ll droplets containing 100 cells on a lid covering sterile 100 mm Petri dish with PBS for 3 days at 37 C. Generation of Teratomas. For teratoma induction, 2 106 rat

1846 Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: a Promising Therapeutic

without any of the ethical concerns related to the use of ES cells [44, 62-71]. iPS cells have been originally derived from adult fibro-blasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions, showing the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes [44].

#01 0680 Stem Cells Book

cells do not grow well without serum, although it is not clear that LIF has any effect. Under these in vitrocon-ditions, the ES cells tend to clump and differentiate spontaneously as they are passaged. In vivo, after injection into the testes of immunocompromised mice, the ES cells differentiate into bone, cartilage, squa-

A Simplified in Vitro Teratoma Assay for Pluripotent Stem

The iPS cells and ES cells were maintained on mitomycin C-treated murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) (ReproCell, Tokyo, Japan). Human iPS cells and monkey ES cells were cultured in primate ES medium (ReproCell) supple-mented with or without 4 ng/ml recombinant basic fibro-blast growth factor (Wako, Osaka, Japan), respectively.

New Methods in Cardiovascular Biology - AHA/ASA Journals

independent iPS lines was minimal. The NKX2-5 GFP iPS cells formed cardiomyocytes by numerous induction protocols and could survive upon transplantation into the infarcted mouse heart without formation of teratomas. Conclusions: Despite the line-to-line variability of gene expression in the undifferentiated state of ES and iPS cells,

Differential requirements for -catenin during mouse development

For stimulation of canonical Wnt signaling, ES cells were treated with 100 ng/ml recombinant mouse Wnt3a (R&D Systems) for 4 hours and directly lysed in Trizol reagent (Invitrogen). For embryoid body (EB) differentiation, 500 cells were allowed to form aggregates in hanging drops (30 l) in ES cell culture medium without LIF for 2 days. EBs were

From testis to teratomas: a brief history of male germ cells

developed from testicular cells by the process of histogenesis (von Kolliker, 1852). Celebrated for hismicroscopicwork on tissues, von Kölliker demonstrated the cellular nature of eggs and sperm, showing that sperm are formed from the tubular walls of the testis just aspollengrains are formed from cells of the anthers (Fig. 5).

Single embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies for gene

ES cells without the requirement of isolating cells. In the present study, we have established an efficient protocol for single ES cell differentiation, which combines the use of a plate shaker and spinner flask system for large-scale single ES-derived EB production suitable for gene screening. Murine ES D3 cells (strain 129/

Pluripotency of Reprogrammed Somatic Genomes in Embryonic

the lymphoid cells in all hybrid clones, verified the mesodermal ori-gin of the somatic cells (Fig. 1C). To investigate differentiation capacity, HxJ and MxR hybrid cells were sub-cutaneously injected into the ingui-nal region of immunodeficient SCID mice. Teratomas that had formed 4 5 weeks after injection of the MxR-2 and -3 hybrid cell

K-ras Proto-Oncogene Exhibits Tumor Suppressor Activity As

teratomas derived from K-ras / embryonic stem (ES) cells which harbor a homozygous deletion spanning exons 1 3 of the native K-ras gene and K-ras / ES cells where K-ras expression was reconstructed by stable expression of mini-genes encoding either wild-type K-rasgly12 or oncogenic K-rasval12 (14). Importantly, because the ES cells possess an

Regulation of pluripotency in male germline stem cells by Dmrt1

sequently found to transform into ES-like cells (Kanatsu-Shinohara et al. 2004). These ES-like cells, called multi-potentGS(mGS)cells,oftenappearassheetsofepiblast-like cells, which transformed into ES-like compact colonies upon passaging. Despite their spermatogonial origin, they proliferate without GDNF and produce teratomas 6Corresponding author

Integration and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

inset). In addition, elongated human ES-derived cells were observed lining the outside of the vertebral arch, apparently having contributed to the perichondrium (Fig. 2F,G). In some (20%) preparations, structures resembling neural rosettes of teratomas developed from the grafted cells (see below). Although the human ES were implanted into the

renal stem cell - CiteSeerX

cultures, ES cells are incorporated into developing renal tubules, without cell fusion, or into the nephrogenic zone. The primed cells are enriched for renal progenitor cells by FACS and injected in vivo into the kidneys of newborn mice, where they are integrated as proximal tubular cells, without teratoma formation (Vigneau et al. 2007). Human

Unit 1: Paper Summary

3) The cells proliferated and appeared to be ES cells. Only two of the cell lines looked like ES cells, and these were analyzed further. 2 out of 91 seems like a small number, but it is actually similar to the percentage at which ES cells can be successfully derived from more established methods.

Unit 5: IPS Q and A

2. Both ES cells and iPS make teratomas when they are injected into mice. If they both cause cancer why is there so much more concern about cancer and iPS cells? Both iPS cells and ES cells form teratomas because they are pluripotent and differentiate randomly once in the body. If either of these cells is to be used in a cell transplant therapy

Veterinary Pathology The Gene or Not the Gene That Is the The

ES cells.98,118 Further advances in ES cell culture conditions have significantly increased the strain and species for which ES cells are available. Many strains of mouse and several strains of rat ES cells have been maintained in serum-free conditions containing leukemia inhibitory factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 in combination with

Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of embryonic stem

ES cells can be multi-plied seemingly without limit in culture whilst retaining ES cells produce teratomas containing a wide variety of mature cell types [1]. Most remarkably, if

Supplemental Data Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from

100-mm dish, we plated 8 x 105 cells, of which ~4 x 105 cells should express all the four selected factors when transfected. By contrast, we obtained ~100 iPS colonies after selection with G418 after introduction of the four factors. Thus, a small portion (~0.02%) of transfected cells becomes ES-like after introduction of the four selected factors.

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Treatment with embryonic stem

ES-like cells into osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyles of adult sheep can enhance the regen-eration process of articular cartilage over a long time period, without formation of teratomas. Results Only 17 animals were included in the statistical analysis, because 5 sheep died from toxaemic gastroenteritis after


of ES cells (not shown). They gave rise to teratomas in nude mice (see Supplementary Fig. 1 online). Therefore, some family proteins are capable of inducing iPS cells from both Nanog-reporter MEFs and Fbxo15-reporter MEFs. Unexpectedly, a few ES cell like and GFP+ colonies from Nanog-reporter MEFs were obtained without the Myc retrovirus (Fig

Hematopoietic colony-forming cells derived from human

ated mouse ES cells, for example, can be maintained as undif-ferentiated feeder-independent cells if growth factors such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or related cytokines are added to the media (1). If human ES cells are grown without feeder cells, but in the presence of LIF, they either differentiate or die (14, 15).

Distinct Responses of Stem Cells to Telomere Uncapping A

To investigate the cellular responses of ES and progenitor cells to telomere dysfunction, we engineered telomerase knockout human ES cells using gene targeting. We find that telomerase-null ES cells retain their pluripotency, and their potential to form teratomas in vivo is limited by their telo-mere length.

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 Is Essential for In Vitro

ES Cell Culture and Differentiation Murine 11-22fgfr1 15/, 23-46fgfr1 /, and 23-18fgfr1 / ES cells were adapted to grow without feeder cells and maintained in Dulbecco s Modified Eagle s Medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (Hyclone), 0.1 mmol/L nonessential amino acids, 1 mmol/L sodium pyruvate, 0.1 mmol/L -mercaptoethanol,

Generation of Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Without

cells did not show integration of adenoviral trans-genes (Fig. 1B). They expressed markers of ES cells, including Nanog, Rex1, and ECAT1, in quantities similar to those in ES cells (Fig. 1C). They formed teratomas containing derivatives of all three germ layers when transplanted sub-cutaneously into nude mice (Fig. 1D). No GFP-

ReviewArticle Cancer Stem Cells: From Historical Roots to a

is was a decisive step as they were isolated without the productionofteratocarcinomas.esemammalianEScells were isolated from the internal mass before separation of the epiblast and the primitive endoderm. But the precise correspondence between the ES cells obtained and grown in vitro, and their equivalent in the embryo have long been controversial.

The generation and in vivo differentiation of -

embryonal stem (ES) cells of the same genotype in vitro and differentiated them in vivo in the form of teratomas. All of the ES cells isolated in this study had a normal ES cell morphology in vitro and were able to generate teratomas. Histological analysis revealed that some differentiation and histogenesis had occurred within the teratomas.

Functional skeletal muscle regeneration from differentiating

engraftment of adult myofibers with enhanced contractile function without the formation of teratomas. These data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of ES cells in muscular dystrophy.

Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from PSC-Derived Teratomas Have

Cell Stem Cell Article Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from PSC-Derived Teratomas Have Functional Regenerative Capacity Sunny Sun-Kin Chan,1,2,4 Robert W. Arpke,1,2,4 Antonio Filareto,1,3 Ning Xie,1,2 Matthew P. Pappas,1