# A Reversible Theory Of Entanglement And Its Relation To The Second Law

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### Quantum thermodynamics for a model of an expanding Universe

entropic interpretation stemming from a quantum ﬂuctuation relation [20]. Our main result is a quantum version of the second law of thermodynamics for an expanding Universe which accounts for the creation of matter. The question we are addressing here differs from those

### Università degli Studi di Padova

a tight relationship between entanglement and mixedness for general prob-abilistic theories. In chapter 5, adding a new axiom concerning the issue of distinguishing states, we devise a diagonalization procedure for mixed states even in a general probabilistic theory, and this is the second major original result.

### The first law of general quantum resource theories

derive a second law relation even in the case in which many (commuting, non-commuting) conserved quantities are present [45{49], and one can consider trade-o s of these [50]. We are thus interested in understanding if one can extend these results to other resource theories, and whether a rst law of general resource theories exists.

### Quantum Thermodynamic Irreversibility

This probabilistic reasoning is encapsulated in the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of a closed system always increases over time. According to the second law, time cannot suddenly go backwards because this would require entropy to decrease. It is a convincing argument for a complex system made up of a great many

### Courses taught by Hatsopoulos/Gyftopoulos/Beretta at MIT

the second law. Definitions of state, changes of state described by unitary transformations in time, equilibrium state, stable state, and reversible processes. Definition and determination of available work and entropy for all systems and all states. Nature of irreversibility and its relation to field theory.

### Porous-based rheological model for tissue uidisation

where Sis the second Piola-Kirchho stress tensor, and Je= det(Fe). The relation between Sand U(C;D) follows from the Clausius-Duhem inequality for an isothermal material [18], 1 2 S: C U 0: The rate of free energy can be attributed the variations of Pand C, but for living materials, also to other energy sources such as ATP hydrolysis or

### FOUNDATIONS FOR A THEORY OF EMERGENT QUANTUM MECHANICS AND

2.6. Notion of dynamical law 28 2.7. Notion of 2-times dynamics 31 2.8. On time re-parametrization invariance 32 2.9. Notions of local reversible and local non-reversible dynamics 32 2.10. The relation between non-reversible dynamics and a generalization of the second principle of thermodynamics 36 2.11. Examples of reversible and non

### arXiv:0710.5827v3 [quant-ph] 9 Mar 2010

A Reversible Theory of Entanglement and its Relation to the Second Law Fernando G.S.L. Branda˜o∗ and Martin B. Plenio† Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW, UK and QOLS, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW, UK

### VWHPVLQWHUDFWLQJZLWKDRQH PRGH HOHFWURPDJQHWLFILHOG

in [21, 22, 23], and its relation with the position of extremal values for the R enyi-Wehrl entropies in [24]. The system of three-level atoms in the and con gurations interacting with a one mode radiation eld together with a dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms has been used to de ne a new concept about atomic squeezing [25, 26].

### Quantum Maxwell's Demon - vixra.org

For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-

### Emergence of Spacetime: From Entanglement to Einstein by

the Clausius relation T S rev = Q, where S rev is the reversible entropy change. Based on this derivation I uncover a local rst law of gravity, E = T S W, connecting gravitational entropy Sto matter energy Eand work W. I then provide an entanglement interpretation of stretched lightcone thermodynamics by extending the entanglement equilibrium

### Time Energy and Time Entropy Uncertainty Relations in

Jul 11, 2019 Gyftopoulos [63 66] can perhaps be considered a ﬁrst pioneering resource theory of quantum thermodynamics equipped with a nonlinear dissipative dynamical structure capable to describe relaxation even from arbitrarily far from equilibrium and to entail the second law as a theorem of the dynamical law.

### C-zones, pillars of coherence - On the Origin

its relation with the course of time3 and vice versa. The second principle means that certainty about the directed kinetic energy (impulse) of a particle gives uncertainty about its location and vice versa. In this principle the course of time and the location of a particle correspond respectively with the energy and with directed kinetic energy.

### Quantum Entropy and its ambiguities

be traced back to a certain gauge symmetry of the theory. 1.2 Black Holes It is well known that we can associate with a black hole a certain entropy. In particular, in order to preserve the second law of thermodynamics, Hawking proved [17] that a black hole can be seen as a thermodynamic object of entropy S BH = k BA 4 2 P, (1.15) 3

### SN NS BCB S S NB BN - Bose

violate the Second Law, effortlessly collecting molecules on the right in a pressure version of Maxwell s temperature demon. But, Smoluchowski argued, if the door were that light and the spring that weak, the door would soon heat up to the same temperature as the gas and undergo random motion of its own, swinging open and shut. It

### Physical Nature of Information

information and its quantum sibling, entanglement entropy. We then focus on the so far most sophisticated way to forget information - renormalization group. Forgetting is a fascinating activity one learns truly fundamental things this way. At the end, I shall brie y describe stochastic thermodyna-mics and modern generalizations of the second law.

### Physical Nature of Information - weizmann.ac.il

information and its quantum sibling, entanglement entropy. We then focus on the so far most sophisticated way to forget information - renormalization group. Forgetting is a fascinating activity one learns truly fundamental things this way. At the end, I shall brie y describe stochastic thermodyna-mics and modern generalizations of the second law.

### Nonequilibrium Aspects of Quantum Thermodynamics

Havingestablished a theory of equilibrium quantum thermodynamics, ques-tions about the stability of the equilibrium arise, whichever microscopic foun-dation of the theory one prefers. Those questions mainly address the reaction of a system weakly perturbed from the outside, i.e. moved out of its respective equilibrium state.

### Gravitational Collapse, Negative World and Complex Holism

Second Law of Thermodynamics that forbids order in favour of discord, instability and lawlessness; infact a living organism continually increases its entropy and thus tends to approach the dangerous state of maximum entropy, which is death However, It can only keep aloof from it, i.e. stay alive, by continually drawing from

### Understanding Rheology of Structured Fluids

reforms its internal network, and the viscosity recovers (Figure 3). The term used to describe this phenomenon is Thixotropy. In studying such materials it can be beneficial to destroy the network structure entirely by shearing the material, giving a clean-slate for examination of the path by which the viscosity rebuilds.

### An Overview on Quantum Computing: The Next Generation in

2.2. Entanglement of states: The one to one relation between logical and physical state in a quantum computer makes a quantum register containing more than one qubit to be impossibly described by listing the states of each qubit. In fact, the state of a qubit is a meaningless term. Entanglement is the way energy and mass become

### Kerr and Kerr-AdS Black Shells and Black Hole Entropy

gravitational theory, since in deriving the rst law of black hole mechanics (the rst equality in (1.2)) we only used the feature of the Reissner-Nordstr om solution, namely (1.1). In fact, it can even be shown that the validity of this law (in its generalized form for rotating black holes) depends only on very

### The first law of general quantum resource theories

Apr 30, 2020 work, one can nd general results which apply to all. For example, a resource theory may be equipped with a zeroth, second, and even third law, i.e., relations that regulate the di erent aspects of the theory, which are reminiscent of the Laws of Thermodynamics. In fact, we have that the zeroth law for resource

### Quantum entanglement and Hawking temperature

2. We obtain the entanglement entropy at different times. We show that at all times, the entanglement entropy sat-isﬁes the area law i.e. S() = C() A where S() is the entanglement entropy evaluated at a given Lemaître time (), C() is the proportionality constant that depends on, and A is the area of the black-hole horizon. In other

### Emergence of Spacetime: From Entanglement to Einstein

NEC arises from a combined theory of matter and gravity, such as string theory [6], where Einstein s equations rewrite the NEC as a geometric inequality, namely, the Ricci convergence condition. Following the spirit of [4], it can be shown that the NEC is a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics applied to local holographic screens

### Emergent Fluctuation Theorem for Pure Quantum States

2nd law Entropy production is non-negative on average Fluctuation theorem Universal relation far from equilibrium Probabilities of Positive/negative entropy productions Second law as an equality! Classical Quantum (Ion-trap) J. Liphardt et al., Science 296, 1832 (2002) A. An et al., Nat. phys. 11, 193 (2015) RNA Theory（1990 s-）

### Equivalence of Quantum Heat Machines, and Quantum

rium on its own. Furthermore, excluding a few nongeneric cases, it is not possible to assign an equation of state that establishes a relation between thermodynamic quantities. Nevertheless, QHE s satisfy the second law and therefore are also bounded by the Carnot efficiency limit [1,72]. Work strokes are characterized by zero contact with the

### Peeling an elastic film from a soft viscoelastic adhesive

accurately fitted by the simple relation m(o)=G0(o)+iG00(o)=G[1 + (ito)n] (1) with an exponent n C 0.55. This bulk rheology obeys Kramers Kronig relation: both the storage and the loss moduli originate from the same relaxation function G[1 + G(1 n) 1(t/t)n], where G is the gamma function. The power law dependence of the loss

### University of Waterloo

Abstract We study a proposed statistical explanation for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole in which entropy arises quantum-mechanically as a result of entan-glement.

### arXiv:0707.0615v1 [gr-qc] 4 Jul 2007

An area law for the entanglement entropy is also found in analogous situations in statistical mechanics, for example in the case of general bosonic harmonic lattice systems [8]. This enforces its universal nature. As mentioned above, there exist various microscopic derivations of black-hole entropy.

### Student Theses Faculty of Science and Engineering - Student

Entropy in Physics: An Overview of De nitions and Applications in Quantum Mechanics Fabian Immanuel IJpelaar January 22, 2021 Abstract In modern physics, entropy is a well-known a

### Criticality, the area law, and the computational power of PEPS

a strict area law scaling of the entanglement entropy in the face of power law decaying correlations. Moreover, it enables us to show that there exist PEPS within the same class as the cluster state, which can serve as computational resources for the solution of NP-hard problems. PACS numbers: The concept of entanglement plays a central role in

### static-curis.ku.dk

Entanglement fluctuation theorems Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Masanes, Lluis; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Perry, Christopher Published in: Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular

### ScientificReport:!Cost!MP1209!Thermodynamics!in!the!Quantum

ScientificReport:!Cost!MP1209!Thermodynamics!in!the!Quantum!Regime! Avendi!Hotel,Berlin(Germany)! 20th! !24th!January!2014! COST!ActionMP1209!heldits!first

### An Insight into Information, Entanglement and Time

An Insight into Information, Entanglement and Time Paul L. Borrill We combine elements of Boltzmann s statistical account of thermodynamic processes in the second law, Poynting s twist waves on a photon shaft and Shannon s theory of communication within a background-free conceptualization of time; where the depar-

### Suggestions for seminar topics - Universität zu Köln

work, thus violating the second law of thermodynamics. This idea has been a source of inspiration for research over many years. One particular version of Maxwell s demon is the Szilard engine. There is an almost endless literature on Maxwell s demon and its history. Here are only a few examples (the two last references give an overview from a

### BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

A derivation and quantiﬁcation of the third law of thermodynamics pg. 25 16. James Millen Thermodynamics with nanospheres levitated in a vacuum pg. 26 17. Beatriz Olmos Relaxation of interacting many-body systems under purely dissipative quantum dynamics pg. 27 18. Marco Pezzutto Complete positivity and the second law in a driven open quantum

### A Reversible Viscoelastic Adhesive

ology is very accurately ﬁtted by the simple relation m(w)=G0(w)+iG00(w)=G[1+(itw)n]; (1) with an exponent n 0:55. This bulk rheology obey Kramers-Kronig relation: both the storage and the loss moduli origi-nate from the same relaxation function G 1+G(1 n) n1 (t=t), where Gis the gamma function. The power law dependence of the

### TRANSFER OF STATUS REPORT An abstract perspective on

It is possible to perceive the logic behind probability theory with the help of Venn Diagrams. Parting from A ⊃ B which is represented in the ﬁrst Venn diagram in 3 what can be deduced from A, ¬B and ¬A in logic is shown in Eq. 14. If one parts from the second Venn diagram in ﬁg.3, nothing can be deduced. A ⊃ B A ⊃ B A ⊃ B

### Entropy - MDPI

The rst step is the entanglement between the system S and the apparatus A. The second step, d;is the decoherence of the entangled AS system by the perturbation through the environment E and the creation of classical alternatives. The third step, p, is the projection to one of the eigenstates and the record of a de nite outcome.