Biochemical Markers Of Bone Turnover In Children With Clinical Bone Fragility

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE JBMR - American Society for Bone and Mineral

3.1 to þ1.0). Hypovitaminosis D was present in 58%. Histomorphometry showed low bone volume in 7 patients and normal bone volume in 17. Bone turnover was high in 7, low in 7, and normal in 10 patients. Histomorphometric findings correlated poorly with fracture history, serum bone turnover markers, and DXA findings.

t r i c ap d i a eut e ics Pediatrics & Therapeutics

assessed through biochemical markers of bone turnover, which reflect bone formation and resorption. Challenges are posed in interpreting these tests in children, as there is great variability in normal ranges due Citation: Perera N, Farrar M (2015) Bone Health in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Review. Pediat Therapeut 5: 252. doi:

The Mellanby Centre

in children s bone disease and health. He is on the National Osteoporosis Society's Vitamin D Working Group. Within Sheffield, he works as part of a group which has expertise in the phenotyping of children with bone fragility at multiple levels including clinical assessment, functional assessment, use of biochemical and imaging

Index []

biochemical markers, bone turnover 242 4 hormones, PTH and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 41 summary 40 bone sialoprotein (BSP) 24, 25, 51 3 gene 53 bone turnover biochemical markers 239 52 local regulators 64 72, 204 bone morphogenic proteins 69 fibroblast growth factor 67 8 growth factors, insulin-like 65 7 insulin-like growth factor 65 7

PLS3 Deletions Lead to Severe Spinal Osteoporosis and

Clinical evaluations, radiographic assessments, and biochemical analyses were performed by the authors at the University Hospital Essen for family 1 (MH and CG) and at the Dana-Dwek Children s Hospital, Tel Aviv, for family 2 (YL, LZ, and AR). Bone densitometry measurements for both families were performed


Sep 21, 2007 patients. Secondary endpoints included the number of clinical fractures over a one-year period. In addition, bone pain, height or supine length, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were secondary endpoints. Biochemical marker data were not collected in patients <3 years of age.

Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD): Overview

Clinical use of bone biopsies is now unusual in most parts of the world because the patients will be subjected to a potentially unpleasant, invasive procedure and with limited access to specialised diagnostic and histopathological support services4. Bone turnover biochemical markers such as osteocalcin, bone-

Osteopenia and Cancer in Children and Adolescents

Biochemical markers of bone turn-over, measurable in the blood, reflect these processes of resorption and formation. For example, C-telopeptide is a product of the breakdown of type 1 collagen, and osteocalcin is a noncollagenous protein that is synthesized by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Com-pact (cortical) bone makes up 80% of the skeleton.

Review Article Optimizing Bone Health in Duchenne Muscular

e current clinical issues relating to bone health and bone health screening methods in DMD are presented in this review. Diagnostic studies, including biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), as well as spinal imaging using densitometric lateral spinal

Brock University

ABSTRACT Thepurposeofthisstudywastocomparebonespeedofsound(SOS)measuredby quantitativeultrasound,circulatinglevelsofIGF-1andbiochemicalmarkersofbone turnoverinpre-(Pr

Appendix (Section Editor: Roger Bouillon)

bone turnover after discontinuing, 176 bone turnover markers and, 175-176 dose-finding studies of, 176 in men, 177 metabolic effect of, 176 Antioxidants, bone growth and, 83 Anti-pagetic therapy, 340 Antiresorptive therapy after anabolic therapy, 253 before anabolic therapy, 252 antifracture efficacy of, 176 bone turnover marker levels and ad-


Biochemical markers of bone turnover will eventually play an important part in monitoring the response to ther-apy and, perharps, in assessing fracture risk. However, the production of hard evidence for their role is hampered by the wide and changing repertoire of available markers; by their biological variability in normal and osteoporo-

Bone Morbidity in Childhood Leukemia: Epidemiology

suppress bone formation or promote bone resorption [ 2, 3]. Musculoskeletal abnormalities are well recognized in chil-dren with ALL at diagnosis, during treatment, and persist as long-term sequelae after treatment. The radiological abnor-malities at diagnosis attributed to the leukemia process occur in up to 70 % of children [4 6].

Bone mass, bone markers and prevalence of fractures in adults

While assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone turnover markers have been used extensively in children, in particular for the evaluation of medical treatment with bisphosphonates [14 16], few data pertaining to these variables have been reported in adults with OI [17, 18].

Association of Blood Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in HIV-1

measurement of bone biochemical markers that are considered to reflect specifically either bone formation or bone resorption. The gold standard for assessment of long term imbalances of bone loss or turnover in HIV-1 infected individuals or other conditions is densitometry techniques such as Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans.

Physical Activity Interactions with Bone Accrual in Children

Therefore, research investigating the relationship regarding bone markers and different PA types is limited and ambiguous, but even more so in children and adolescents, making it difficult to ascertain the effect of sport on bone. The examination of biochemical measurements of bone turnover, in addition to static measures of bone, is


high skeletal growth velocity and rapid bone turnover (Fares et al., 2003; Yang &Grey, 2006; Atkinson, 2008). Biochemical assessment of markers of bone turnover may be important in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of bone metabolism disease (Vasikaran et al., 2008). These markers can be assessed in both serum and urine samples.

Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of bone turnover

BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS Parathyroid Hormone While bone histology is the gold standard for accurate assessment of bone turnover, the search for biochemical markers has been ongoing for a number of years. Measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been widely used since PTH is a major regulator of bone turnover and skeletal

Measurement of Osteocalcin

Bone turnover may be assessed by the measure­ ment ofenzymes or matrix proteins produced by osteoblasts (which form bone) or osteoclasts (which resorb bone).' The introduction of reliable, specific tests for the biochemical markers of bone metabolism would aid in the clinical management ofmetabolic bone diseases, including osteoporosis.

Bone Mass Development and Bone Metabolism in Juvenile

Compared to pretreatment values, bone formation and resorption markers increased significantly during treatment. Conclusion. Our results reflect an increase in bone turnover under GH therapy in these patients. Despite biochemical changes there was a stabilization of vBMD for age and bone age, with a percentage increase comparable to healthy

Genetic Disorders and Bone Affecting the Craniofacial Skeleton

decreased pain, diminished levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover, and improved radio-logic aspect in approximately half of the patients treated. Although the therapy was considered safe, no clinical or biologic predictors were estab-lished. These findings were supported in a similar study by Kos and colleagues [12].

KDOQI US Commentary on the 2017 KDIGO Clinical Practice

Sep 20, 2017 bone quality in patients with CKD that is classified based on 3 histologic descriptors: bone turnover, mineralization, and volume.8 Dual-energy x-ray ab-sorptiometry bone mineral density (DXA BMD) cannot delineate renal osteodystrophy type, and at the time of writing of the 2009 KDIGO guideline, there was a lack of evidence that DXA BMD predicted

Battling Metabolic Bone Disease

Age, previous fracture(s), bone mineral density (BMD) FRAX® WHO fracture risk assessment toolWHO fracture risk assessment tool Biochemical markers (BCM) of bone turnover Review FDA approved drug treatments Calcium and vitamin D Anti-resorptive therapy Anabolic therapy Monitoring therapy


Biochemical markers of bone turnover, resorption, and formation The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends bone density assessment in all children and adolescents who experience clinically significant fragility fractures. Coupled with low bone density (BMD Z-score of ≤-2), history of clinically

IFCC Professional Scientific Exchange Programme (PSEP

Biochemical assays for monitoring bone turnover rely on the measurement, in serum or urine, of enzymes or matrix proteins synthesized by osteoblasts or osteoclasts that spill over into body fluids, or of osteoclast-generated degradation product of the bone matrix itself (15). These markers can be used for research (16) and for clinical purpose

Antidepressant medications and bone loss: An insight for

test, some other biochemical markers of bone turnover such as bone resorption markers and bone formation markers are also used forthe diagnosis of osteoporosis. 2.3.2.Biochemical markers of bone turnover Bone metabolism is characterised by two opposing activities coupled in time and space at the level of a basic multicellular unit (BMU).

2010 clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and

Increased values for bone turnover markers are associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of fractures, Table 1: Indications for measuring bone mineral density Older adults (age ≥ 50 yr) Younger adults (age < 50 yr) Age ≥ 65 yr (both women and men) Fragility fracture Clinical risk factors for fracture (menopausal women, men age

Evaluation and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral

and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) Based on selected guidelines from the KDOQI U.S. Commentary on the 2009 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention and Treatment of CKD-MBD. 1. Disability ↓Quality of Life. Hospitalizations Death. Bone Abnormalities Vascular and Valvular Disease (calcification) Cardiovascular

LABRAD : Vol 35, Issue 1 - January - February 2010

Low bone mass together with a high rate of bone l oss further increases the risk of fracture. High bone turnover as estimated by biochemical markers is associated with an increased rate of bone loss and predicts the risk of fracture independently of BMD. Studies have reported odds ratio for fracture of around 2 per 2 SD increase in the biochemical

Markers of bone turn-over in DENTISTRY

Biochemical markers of bone turnover include markers of bone formation, bone resorption and bone metabolism regulation determine abnormalities in bone remodeling can be used to monitor the rate of bone loss in various metabolic bone disorders enable monitoring the efficacy of drug therapy for osteoporosis and other bone disorders

Alendronate Treatment in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

In a recent clinical trial by DiMeglio, et al.(18), comparison of oral alendronate to intravenous pamidronate in 12 children with OI yielded results similar to ours. Bone mineral density increased in both oral and intravenous groups equally and all children had a decrease in biochemical markers of bone turnover and increased PTH. We found

The Role of Biochemical Tests in the Screening and Monitoring

BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS AND THEIR THEORETICAL BASIS FIGURE 4. Illustration ofthe changes in bone density with age and the concept of a fracture threshold. The rate of decline in bone density is greater in postmenopausal women, and in the case ofboth men and women there is some variation in the rate ofbone loss, hence the recognition ofslow and fast

S84 9. Gastrointestinal/Liver Disease/Metabolic Complications

in children and adults. Bone mass loss in children could be caused by various mechanisms, most probably because of imbalance between bone formation and degradation processes. CF-related low bone mineral density (BMD) leads to bone fragility, susceptibility to fracture and disability. Aim of the study was to assess the bone mass density in


Study V we assessed bone turnover markers in 130 untreated children and in 69 of those also during treatment for 1.0-12.5 years. Results: Patient diaries showed less pain and improved well-being during treatment. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DXA increased gradually. Mobility and vertebral height improved more in younger children.

Bone Turnover Markers in Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Effect

To assess the changes of bone turnover markers in OI patients compared to normal controls and study the effect of bisphosphonate treatment on the biochemical measurements and biochemical markers of bone turnover, measurements were done at baseline (0 M), after 6 months of treatment (6 M) and after 1 year of treatment (12 M).

Editorial Ultrasonic bone assessment: The time has come

bone mass has about the same predictive value for fracture as blood pressure has for stroke [3]. Stages of bone turnover have been studied by analysis of biochemical markers as bone is removed and reformed [4]. But there is as yet no reliable clinical method to assess the status of the internal trabecular

Bone histomorphometric changes in children with rheumatic

decreased trabecular thickness and bone turnover [15, 16]. Moreover, in adult cohorts, vertebral fractures have been demonstrated to relate to trabecular bone micro-architecture independent of the bone density [17]. The mineral content of bone has similarly been demon-strated to be an important determinant of bone stiffness

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis

sequence of bone resorption and formation2,31 33. In the adult, 95% of bone turnover occurs by remodelling and approximately 10 15% of skeletal surfaces are in the process of being remodelled at any one time. Osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption, dissolve away a

Osteopenia of Prematurity in an Extremely Low-Birth- Weight

biochemical markers (calcium 2.33 mmol/l; phosphorus 1.02 mmol/l; PTH 592 ng/l; ALP 886 U/l). The fracture was treated with shoulder brace. -ray of the Control X fractured limb at 18 weeks of age showed normal healing of the left humerus but still apparent bone loss (Figure 3). The infant was discharged at 20 weeks of age in good