The Bioassay Of Mammalian Olfactory Signals

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Signaling and Priming Communication: Independent Roles in the

fied chemical signals found in an individual's urine convey olfactory information relevant to its species, sex, stage of maturation and reproductive state, while unidentified chemical primers, also found in urine, modulate the release of the gonadotropic hormones in members of the opposite sex (reviewed by Bronson 1971, 1979; Vandenbergh 1975).

Identification of glandular (preputial and clitoral) proteins

Chemical signals play an important role 111 mammalian reproduction and social behaviour including sexual attraction 1-4, territorial marking5.7, mother-young interactions8, individual identification9 and evocation of aggression 10. The sources of these chemical signals are urine, faeces, vaginal fluid,


bioassay studies that showed their role in plant herbivore interactions. Since then, a more complex picture of these interactions has emerged. The chemical interactions discussed above mostly concern bitrophic interactions. More recently, the importance of chemical cues was investigated in multitrophic interactions.

Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus

Olfactory mating signals present in mouse urine were pointed 1 Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston, CH64 7TE, UK.

Are mammal olfactory signals hiding right under our noses?

component signals, I have surveyed the literature for evi-dence on the complexity of mammalian chemical signals, whether they are coded as ratios and whether they depend ona Gestalt or achemical image. Thereportedcompositions of mammalian secretions in the broad sense and the nature of the mammal semiochemicals that have been chemically

The search for human pheromones: the lost decades and the

some mammalian pheromones, are not single compounds. Insteadtheytendtobeaspecies-specificmulti-componentcom-bination of molecules [5,10]. For example, in the house mouse, sulfated oestrogens and a particular fraction of female urine form a multi-component mouse pheromone, produced by oes-trous females, which promotes male mounting [10,11]. Most


investigated their effect on mammalian feeding by using correlative analysis of the relationship between food intake and concentration of terpenes in the foliage (Hume and Esson, 1993; Lawler et al., 1998a). However, such correlative studies do not show cause and effect, and bioassay studies, in which isolated terpenes

RESEARCH ARTICLE Nasopalatine Ducts and Flehmen Behavior in

marking behavior, as well as the confirmed production and perception of olfactory signals. In other mammalian species, flehmen is a behavior thought to transport primarily nonvolatile, aqueous‐soluble odorants via specialized ducts to the vomeronasal organ (VNO). By contrast, Old World primates are

letters to nature Drosophila Stardustinteracts with Crumbs

associated with mammalian Lin-7 (ref. 15), and in Caenorhabditis elegans a predicted protein of unknown function (see Supplemen-tary Information). No homology to the amino-acid sequence of exon 3 in SdtA was found. The gene that gives rise to these three cDNAs is sdt, because three independent strong hypomorphic or null alleles of sdt XN05,


Feb 26, 2019 that the fact that learning may be involved in mammalian olfactory communication, implies that the chemical signals used should not be called pheromones. Recently Miil ler-Schwarze (1977) has suggested restoi ing the use of the term pheromonc in mammalian olfactory communication by using th term 'informer pheromonc' for a

The Fecal Odor of Sick Hedgehogs ( Mediates Olfactory

that selectively target a suitable mammalian host. Ticks are vectors of human conditions such as Lyme disease (Parola and Didier, 2001) and tick-borne encephalitis (Lindgren and Gustafson, 2001). The tick, Ixodes hexagonus, is associated predominantly with hedgehogs, but also is found regularly on mustelid carnivores


Oct 16, 2012 Olfactory basis and sensory ecology of cannibal avoidance Many young salamanders exhibit avoidance reactions or increased refuge use in response to dissolved chemical signals released from stream predators, such as fish, insect larvae, snakes, and cannibals (Petranka et al.

Facts, Fallacies, Fears, and Frustrations With Human - Wiley

Examples include affects on the menstrual cycle (primer effects); olfactory recognition of newborn by its mother (signaler); individuals may exude different odors based on mood (suggestive of modulator effects). However, there is no good evidence for releaser effects in adult humans. It is emphasized that no bioassay-guided study has led to the

Lack of evidence for pheromones in lemurs

required for olfactory processing. Unlike pheromonal attraction, it is not stereotyped, species- or sex-specifi c, uniquely directed to conspecifi c scent, or necessarily indicative of reproductive interest. Were that the case, one must conclude that female lemurs are most sexually attracted to female pheromones that change seasonally

International Society of Chemical Ecology

8:45-9:10 Dr. Ring T. Cardé Chemical signals in the environment: influences of patterns of encounter on insects' behavioral responses 9:10-9:35 Dr. R. Alexander Steinbrecht Smelling proteins - localization of olfactory transduction proteins in moth and fly 9:35-10:00 Dr. Bill S. Hansson Function and central nervous projection

Group and kin recognition via olfactory cues in chimpanzees

than olfactory cues [4,5]. The notion that primates are microsmatic was primar-ily based on anatomical evidence such as a reduction in the proportional size of the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb volume as compared with most other mammalian species [6,7] or a decrease in functional olfactory receptor genes [8,9].


(e) Hormones and behaviour, Mammalian nervous system with special reference to the involvement of hypothalamus in the regulation of behavioural patterns UNIT-V. 1. Social behaviour in Primates (a) Primate societies (b) Social signals, olfactory, tactile, visual, vocal

Effectiveness of Predator Fecal Odors as Black-Tailed Deer

Chemical signals of an olfactory nature mod-ify behavioral activities of mammalian prey species (Griffith 1920, Stoddart 1976, Thiessen and Rice 1976, Hennessy and Owings 1978). In some species of ungulates, odors of predators elicit the same response as actual sightings of predators (Schaller 1967). These concepts are


undertaking olfactory testing in the outpatient clinic remains an infrequent occurrence, despite the prevalence of olfactory disturbances in patients. This talk will focus on the development of an olfactometer for routine clinical use and the considerations taken during this process. The role of potential

Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) recognize group membership

olfactory signals and body odor may play an important role when it comes to territorial defense and group cohesion at night. Furthermore, in contrast to acoustic and visual cues, olfaction has a long-lasting effect in communication. Odors conveyed through urine, feces, body secretions, or fur can be

Particulate Adenylate Cyclase Plays a Key Role in Human Sperm

to the relatively benign mammalian reproductive tract. Olfactory receptor proteins (ORs),1 classic G-protein-coupled receptors, comprise the largest gene family in the human ge-nome (7). They are usually, but not always, expressed in the ciliary compartments of nasal olfactory sensory neurons and are coupled to complex signal transduction pathways.

Durham Research Online - CORE

rather than olfactory cues [4,5]. The notion that primates are microsmatic was primarily based on anatomical evidence such as a reduction in the proportional size of the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb volume as compared to most other mammalian species [6,7] or a decrease in functional olfactory receptor genes [8,9].

t er i na r y Sciec Journal of Veterinary Science & f e o c l

mammalian species except primates the estrous females express the desire and inform the male of their receptive state by means of chemical signals from urine and vaginal discharge [14]. The chemical signals produced from female during specific period initiate male partner to exhibit a variety of copulatory behaviour which end up with coitus.

Urinary Olfactory Chemosignals in Lactating Females Show More

A comprehensive understanding of mammalian chemical communication requires a combination of bioassay and chemical analysis to identify the pheromonal components involved (Singer et al. 1997, Novotny et al. 1999a). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is standard in semiochemica l research. A systematic approach using gas

Melopsittacus undulatus,

signals such as sex pheromones attracting the opposite sex for breeding (1,2,4). But, the uropygial (also called preen or oil) glands of birds have no sex pheromones characterized (2,3,5). Here, we show that females of the budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulatus, can distinguish males from females via body odour in Y maze, indicating an occurrence

Chemistry of clitoral gland secretions of the laboratory rat

other chemical signals (inter-specific) is in the output: when processed by the brain, chemical signals result in the sensation of smell, whereas pheromone signals trigger a unique characteristic behavioural or physiological res-ponse (Ben -Ari 1998). Mammalian pheromones are found to be involved in many reproductive behaviours, such as

OPINION Vol 457 ESSAY Fifty years of pheromones

isolation, identification, synthesis and bioassay confirmation of activity 2. Butenandt s work established that chemical signals between ani-mals exist and can be identified, marking the start of modern pheromone research. Popular speculation about human pheromones, still going strong today, began too. The idea of chemical communication was

Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice Mus

reception for pheromonal chemical signals are the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system. And, based on the physiology, the recipients use these specific olfa ctory pathways in the perception of chemical signals (Ben-Ari 1998). It is well known that urine odours of rodents contain information about the species, sex, sexual state (estrus),


visual or olfactory senses. Recently there is a vibrant interest in understanding more about neuronal replacement and treatments with stem cells that differentiate into neurons within the adult mammalian CNS (Encinas et al., 2006; Huang and Herbert, 2006). It is now

In search of super-lures: mammalian communication and pest

antenna to detect the compounds. This type bioassay is widely used for the detection of volatiles perceived by the antennal olfactory apparatus of insects in the field (Suckling et al. 1994) or laboratory (ElSayed et al. 2009) but animal - ethical requirements prevent its direct application to mammalian pheromone identification.

InsectPheromones:DietRelated? - Science

olfactory programming remains a viable hypothesis (2) [mammalian imprinting of chemical messenger systems by ex-ogenous food substances has recently been documented (3)]. Ultimately, as-sessing the validity ofthese theories will require chemical and biological experi-ments designed with minimal ex-pectation. In this regard, the theory that

Individual odour signatures that mice learn are shaped by

evolve distinctive polymorphic signals to advertise identity reliably. As a bioassay to understand the derivation of individual-specific odour signatures, we use female attraction to the individual odours of male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus), learned on contact with a male sscentmarks.