Phospholipids And Islet Function

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Perilipins: a diversity of intracellular lipid droplet proteins

islet β-cells hepatic stellate cells LD stabilization FA supply to mitochondria Fig. 1 Synthetic pathways of neutral lipids. Triglycerides (TG) are synthesized from one glycerol 3-phophate and three fatty acids. The monoglyceride (MG)-pathway is an alternative TG synthetic pathway in the small intestine, which is not detailed in this figure.

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Anlyses of

from islet phospholipids isolated by HPLC suggest that arachidonate comprises 30-36% of the total esterified fatty acyl mass of rat and human islet phospholipids (19, 20). Because arachidonate is distributed predominantly in the sn-2 position of phospholipids that contain a distinct sn-1 sub-

Inhibitory effect of kisspeptins on insulin secretion from

gene and also expressed in islet β-cells. The KISS1 gene encodes a hydrophobic 145-amino acid protein that is cleaved into a 54-amino acid protein, kisspeptin-54 or KP54. Shorter kisspeptins also exist, such as kisspeptin-10 (KP10) and kisspeptin-13 (KP13). The involvement of GPR54 and kisspeptins in the regulation of islet function is not known.

University of Michigan

iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would first and foremost like to thank my advisor, Dr. Robert Kennedy, for his support and guidance throughout my graduate career and for his contributions

Glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and islet

Glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and islet phospholipids in mice that overexpress iPLA 2 in pancreatic -cells and in iPLA 2-null mice Shunzhong Bao,1 David A. Jacobson,2 Mary Wohltmann,1 Alan Bohrer,1 Wu Jin,1 Louis H. Philipson,2 and John Turk1


Figure 2.2 Toxic islet amyloid polypeptide peptides and peptide fragments induce more negative curvature strain in membranes than non-toxic rIAPP1-37. 56 Figure 2.3 31P NMR shows that rIAPP 1-19 binds short-chain phospholipids in bicelles

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Composition and turnover rate of islet phospholipids Ana M. Cortizo et al. The [3Hl-glycerol incorporation into islet phospholipids was similar in both groups when the islets were incubated in the presence of 3.3 mM glucose (267.4 -r 13.9 for controls, vs 254.5 -f 18.6 for hypothyroid rats (dpm/islet/h)). Conversely,

Lysophosphatidylcholine Containing Anisic Acid Is Able to

Apr 22, 2020 the attention as potential pharmacological targets, as they regulate islet function and hormone secretions, ultimately controlling glucose homoeostasis, and have druggable binding site at the cell surface [26]. GPCRs form the largest human membrane protein family transducing signals from a variety of extracellular molecules to the intracellular

Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Inserts into Phospholipid

chosen because these phospholipids represent the most abundant zwitterionic phospholipid species (PC) and the dominant negatively charged phos-pholipid species (PS) in eukaryotic cells. The 7:3 ratio was chosen because it resembles the ratio of zwitterionic lipids to negatively charged lipids of the membrane of pancreatic islet cells.17

Neurotransmitter Assessment Form Interpretation

Clinical Considerations: Nutritional support for general brain function should always include a rich source of essential fatty acids and methyl donors. The brain is comprised of phospholipids and strongly influenced in its function by rich sources of fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. Methyl donors are important for many

Overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 4 prevents β-cell

Sep 25, 2012 creases islet ROS measured with dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate (H 2DCF-DA), prevents the impairing effects of FFA on -cell function (51). Zhang et al. (72) confirmed our findings in rats (51) in a different model of prolonged FFA elevation. Our group has also shown that the antioxidant taurine alleviates FFA-induced impairment in -cell

Fetal Lung Development in the Diabetic Pregnancy

relative insulin resistance (4 1, 157); islet cell function is subse- quently sufficient for glucoregulation in the nongravid state. Lung developmental abnormalities associated with diabetic

Pancreatic Ectopic Fat Is Characterized by Adipocyte

(10) and in islet β-cells following exposure to fatty acids (11,12). The role of lipids in pancreatic islet function (and insulin secre-tion from islet β-cells in particular) is currently of considerable interest. An adequate supply of NEFA in the fasting state is essential for the normal functioning of islet β-cells (13 15) but

Changes induced by glucose in the plasma membrane properties

tions for islet function. The incubation was stopped by adding 9 ml of 250 ,aM EGTA-50 mM Tris-E-ICI buffer, at pH 7.24 and the suspension was centrifuged at 1700 X g for 1 min. The super- natant was discarded and the islets washed twice with 0.25 M sucrose-50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4 and


islet cell lines, and in rat insulinoma (INS1) cells. INS-1 insulinoma cells were treated with thapsigargin to induce ER stress, which can eventually lead to apoptosis. Thapsigarin-treated INS-1 cells exhibited an increase in the ratio of BCL-x(s) (pro-apoptotic) to BCL-x(L) (anti-apoptotic) but BEL prevented this shift in splicing.

2012 69-75 69 The Role of Peroxidation of Mitochondrial

The Role of Peroxidation of Mitochondrial Membrane Phospholipids in Pancreatic insulin resistance and pancreatic islet -cell failure. Ac- mitochondrial structure and function and lead to

Simultaneous inhibitions of inositol phospholipid breakdown

posure of cells to islet-activating protein (IAP), pertus- sis toxin. A23187 caused 45Ca inflow and releases of arachidonic acid and histamine without inducing breakdown of inositol phospholipids. The effects of A23187, in contrast to those of compound 48/80, were not altered by the exposure of cells to IAP. Incubation

Enriching Islet Phospholipids With Eicosapentaenoic Acid

Enriching Islet Phospholipids With Eicosapentaenoic Acid Reduces Prostaglandin E 2 Signaling and Enhances Diabetic b-Cell Function Joshua C. Neuman,1,2 Michael D. Schaid,1,2 Allison L. Brill,2,3 Rachel J. Fenske,1,2 Carly R. Kibbe,2,3

Nutrition & Metabolism BioMed Central

role in the control of islet β-cell function [13,14]. Short-term (2 6 hours) elevation of the plasma FFA con-centration in human subjects [15] and animals [16,17] enhances while an acute decrease inhibits glucose-stimu-lated insulin secretion [15,18]. Following lipid infusion or ingestion of a mixed meal, the plasma FFA concentra-

Imaging mass spectrometry enables molecular profiling of

Phospholipids and glycolipids also play important roles in islet function. For example, the number of double bonds in the fatty acid tails of glycerophospholipids in the plasma membrane has been found to affect the function of glucose transport proteins [10 12]. Gangliosides, a class of glycosphingolipids characterised by one or more sialic acid

Section II: Nuclear Receptors and Islet Function

Section II: Nuclear Receptors and Islet Function Putative Metabolic Effects of the Liver X Receptor (LXR) Knut R. Steffensen and Jan-Åke Gustafsson The nuclear receptors liver X receptor (LXR) and LXR are sensors of cholesterol metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. They have recently been found to be reg-

Lipid Modulation in the Formation of -Sheet Structures

Aug 19, 2020 islet -cells, it can be concluded that the anionic lipid environment and degree of solvation are critical conditions for the stability of segments with the propensity to form -sheet structures, a situation that will eventually a ect the structural characteristics and stability of IAPP within insulin granules, thus modifying the insulin secretion.

The Predictive Value of Biopsy of the Pancreas and Its

specific signals to control the cells function and survival [17]. The extracellular matrix of the islet is formed mainly of two types, basement membrane (BM), which function as a barrier limiting the trans-membrane cross- movement of cells and molecules and interstitial matrix which offers elasticity and flexibility to the islet (IM), cells.

pancreas - endocrine gland

2) Pancreatic polypeptide - released from the PP cells in the Islet, and function is relatively unknown but it may play a role in certain GI functions. Pancreatic hormones: Insulin and Glucagon Insulin it is a small protein composed of two amino acid chains. When they are split apart, it is nonfunctional. It is made by the beta cells of the

DAPI Fluoromount-G® Mounting Medium, 20 mL SouthernBiotech

13. Conrad E, Dai C, Spaeth J, Guo M, Cyphert HA, Scoville D, et al. The MAFB transcription factor impacts islet α-cell function in rodents and represents a unique signature of primate islet β-cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;310:E91-102. (IHC-PS, CY2, CY3, CY5) 14.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Steering Committee, Senior Trainer NAME

KM, Wienkes, HN, Eliceiri, KW, Merrins, MJ, Davis, DB, and Kimple, ME (2017) Enriching Islet Phospholipids with Eicosapentaenoic Acid Reduces Prostaglandin E 2 Signaling and Enhances Diabetic β-cell Function. Diabetes 66: 1572-85. PMCID: PMC5440023 Delineating the role of Rap1/mTORC1 in cellular function, proliferation, and survival.


Oct 03, 2017 deteriorates islet function. Impeding the increase maintains a normal islet function. Furthermore, HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance and T2D can be prevented, and more interestingly reversed, by decreasing apoCIII, despite continuation on HFD. In conclusion, apoCIII is an important diabetogenic factor and the aim for the future is to find

cellsusingmaleimide-PEG-phospholipids,whichprovidedanti-complement and anticoagulation activities.[25] This simplistic and mild method did not affect islet cell function. Modified islet cells prevented early islet graft loss, resulting in the re-versalofhyperglycemia.Wonetal.,successfullyanchoredCXC chemokinereceptor4(CXCR4)ontoMSCsusingCXCR4

Soluble amyloid β oligomers affect dielectric membrane

glutamine (Huntington s disease), islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, type 2 diabetes mellitus) affect very different tissues in patients and because misfolded peptide oligomers appears to translocate membranes easily, it is intriguing to speculate that oligomer interaction with bilayer

1992 Publications Total of 30

4. Effect of high carbohydrate intake on hyperglycemia, islet function, and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM. Garg A, Grundy SM, Koffler M. Diabetes Care. 1992 Nov;15(11):1572-80.PMID: 1468287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Related citations 5. Comparison of effects of high and low carbohydrate diets on plasma lipoproteins and

GroupXSecretoryPhospholipaseA2 RegulatesInsulin

hydrolyzes membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid (AA). While AA is an activator of glucose-stimulated insu-linsecretion(GSIS),itsmetaboliteprostaglandinE2(PGE2)isa knowninhibitor.Inthisstudy,wedeterminedthatGXsPLA 2 is expressed in insulin-producing cells of mouse pancreatic islets and investigated its role in beta cell function


Islet cell autoantigen of 69 kDa (ICA69) is a small GTPase binding protein of unknown function. ICA69 is enriched in the Golgi complex and its N-terminal half contains a BAR domain, a module that can bind/bend membranes and interacts with phospholipids. Here we show that in insulinoma INS-1 cells ICA69 binds to the small GTPase Rab2, which

Regulation of insulin secretion and reactive oxygen species

β-cell function and diabetes. 5,6. In this review, the mechanisms involved in fatty acid-medi-ated insulin secretion and of ROS production in pancreatic islets and b-cells are discussed. Our main focus is the acute effect of the FA on islet functions and on the signaling pathways involved in the amplification of the glucose-induced insulin

Function of Collagens in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Diseases

Jul 02, 2014 islet adhesion, survival, and functionality, such as structural integrity, insulin expression and release, and glucose metabolism are all affected by the various ECM components including collagens I and IV [37]. Consistent with all of these findings, α3 (V) chains play an important role in islet development, proliferation and function. And which

g Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access

in vascular function as well. General Properties of PLA2G1B The PLA2G1B is a secreted extracellular phospholipase A2 with Ca2+ binding sites. It is highly expressed in the acinar cells of the pancreas and to lesser extent in the lung and islet β-cells. So PLA2G1B has been thought to participate in hydrolysis of phospholipids in the digestive

Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances modulates

phospholipids, increasing risk of type 1 diabetes and progression to T1D-associated islet autoantibodies in the offspring. This PFAS-lipid association appears function and

available under aCC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license 12

Jan 02, 2021 from membrane-derived phospholipids, but its role and mechanisms in the pathogenesis of islet inflammation have not been elucidated. Leveraging a model of T1D-like islet inflammation in zebrafish, we show here that macrophages contribute significantly to the loss of -cells and the subsequent development of hyperglycemia.

Effect of intensive insulin treatment on plasma levels of

glycemic control and improve islet function and insulin sensitivity in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM [13]. In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), after a 10-year follow-up, patients with newly diagnosed T2DM who received intensive glucose therapy were found to have a reduced risk of microvascular complications, cor-

Role of islet β cell autophagy in the pathogenesis of diabetes

survival/function can or insulin sensitivity [6 9] depends on autophagy [10,11], suggesting important roles for autoph-agy in b cell function and body metabolism. The role of autophagy in metabolic disorders has been investigated using several in vitro and in vivo strategies including genetic technologies, and pancreatic b cells are

Autonomic regulation of islet hormone secretion- (1)

Synchronizing islet function Islet B cells secrete insulin in a pulsatile manner Blocking pancreatic ganglia destroys the oscillation‐disturbed patterns seen in diabetes Pulsatile treatment with insulin ins more effective to suppress hepatic glucose production than continuous