Species Interaction Mechanisms Maintain Grassland Plant Species Diversity

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(CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS

mechanisms and the co-occurrence of associated grassland species is recommended for addressing these complex interactions moving forward. Chapter Two focuses on the occurrence of foxes, owls, and plovers on prairie dog colonies. Co-occurring species often benefit from the same patches of habitat, and in some cases

Interactive Effects of Time, CO2, N, and Diversity on Total

elevated N. Because diversity tends to increase the effectofCO 2 andNonplantproductivity(Reichand others 2001a), we expected that diversity would also increase the size of the CO 2 by N interaction. METHODS BioCON The BioCON experiment is located in an old-field grassland on a nutrient poor, sandy outwash plain in the Long-Term Ecological

Processes that influence biodiversity, ecosystem functioning

Aug 11, 2018 CHAPTER 2. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity 18 Abstract 18 Introduction 19 Methods 23 Results 28 Discussion 32 Acknowledgements 36 CHAPTER 3. Biodiversity, productivity, and the temporal stability of productivity: patterns and processes 42 Abstract 42 Introduction 43 Methods 47 Results 53

Plant diversity maintains multiple soil functions in future

2007), and that different plant species provide different ecosystem functions under different global change scenarios (Isbell et al., 2011). Resource additions often favor fast (i.e. acquisitive) plant strategies, thereby decreasing the evenness, functional diversity, and species richness of plant com-munities (Reich, 2014a).

Earthworm and belowground competition eVects on plant

earthworm numbers, the eVects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed aVect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. How-

Impacts of plant diversity on arthropod communities and plant

vore diversity has benefits for plant diversity and ecosystem function. Generalist herbivores can maintain diversity of primary producers through selective grazing on locally abundant hosts, decreasing dominance of single species (Morten-sen et al. 2017). Some positive feedback between plant diversity and herbivory (Schuldt et al. 2015,

Interactive effects of landscape history and current

FDiv was mainly explained by the interaction between current grazing intensity and the amount of grassland habitat in the surrounding landscape in 1938. 4. Synthesis. The study suggests that the variability of dispersal and persistence traits in grassland plant communities is driven by deterministic assembly processes, with both history and

Effects of Selective Clipping and Mowing Time on Species

alters chalk grassland into tall, species-poor grassland, dominated by a few highly productive crop grasses (Willems 1980). To maintain a high species diversity in chalk grassland, not only has fertilization to be avoided, but also a specific management is needed to prevent their natural succession towards woodland (Wells 1974, Willems 1985).

Plant-Soil Feedback: Bridging Natural and Agricultural Sciences

On the other hand, in natural systems, plant species encompass the whole trait economics spectrum, including resource-conservative species [8]. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms plant performance and of are PSFmuch the same (Figure 1). Indeed, inboth systems, plant functional traits determine the effects of plants on

Local Loss and Spatial Homogenization of Plant Diversity

102 multifunctionality through two main mechanisms. First, dissimilarity in functionally important 103 species can maintain functioning across landscapes if different sp ecies contribute to different 104 functions in different locations7,8,16,17. Second, dissimilarity in species composition among local

Moderate Grazer Density Stabilizes Forage Availability More

Apr 09, 2021 of aboveground biomass each year. The diversity of patches with respect to time-since-fire increases plant compositional diversity, as well, which can be expressed through conventional plant ecology concepts such as b diversity [19,20]. Landscape-level heterogeneity in vegetation structure driven by patchy fire and graz-

Land acquisition, agriculture and plant biodiversity

farmland in the tropics are used for modern agriculture, the plant biodiversity is being reduced. To harvest large quantities of any crop plant product requires access to advanced seeds, reduced numbers of competing weeds and inputs of nutrients. Thus, any type of agriculture activity threatens to reduce species diversity.

Woody plant richness does not influence invertebrate

trophic level consumers to grassland plant diversity (Siemann et al. 1998, Haddad et al. 2009) and potential cascading effects across species interaction networks (Scherber et al. 2010). Typically, these have exhibited similar, but weaker relationships than observed for primary producer diversity. However, a key limitation in

Current Biology Magazine - Cell

species in southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In contrast to these crop parasites, hemiparasitic rattle (Rhinanthus spp.) and grassland hemiparasites act as ecosystem engineers that suppress the growth of competitively dominant Quick guide plants and help maintain high species diversity, and are increasingly used in

Plant diversity effects on grassland productivity are robust

availability of growth-limiting resources changes along plant diversity gradients. In three long-term grassland diversity experiments, N mineralization rates increased with plant species diversity [22 25], potentially lowering nutrient limit-ation and leading to a weaker response to nutrient addition in high-diversity communities.

Seed dispersal in both space and time is necessary for plant

A majority of plant species not only disperse in space, but also in time, mostly via seed banks. Seed banks can hold more species than the aboveground vegetation (Vandvik et al. 2015), hence temporal dispersal via seed banks (hereafter temporal seed dispersal) may be a key factor maintain-ing plant community diversity (Royo and Ristau 2013),

AppliedVegetationScience 19 (2016) 3 4 COMMENTARY

dent species and over larger distances, and ultimately reducing the extent of priority effects (Fig. 1). Grassland plant species also host other ubiquitous symbionts, such as leaf endophytes, that have been shown to suppress AMF root colonization, ultimately impacting plant performance (Omacini et al. 2012). The interaction between leaf endo-

Plant responses to grazing: a comparative evaluation of

the reproductive stage may be sufficient to maintain abundant populations of dominant annual grasses while grazing during the remainder of the year may limit their suppressive effects on associated annual species to maintain high species diversity. Keywords: plant defoliation, grazing, population persistence, Triticum dicoccoides Introduction

Journal of Ecology Intraspecific aggregation does not increase

Intraspecific aggregation does not increase species richness in dune grasslands Christian Damgaard* Department of Terrestrial Ecology, NERI, University of Aarhus, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Summary 1. One of the possible mechanisms to maintain a high number of species in a plant community is

Spatial covariance of herbivorous and predatory guilds of

The species-energy theory pre-dicts that large-scale patterns of diversity follow patterns in the density of individual organisms, which in turn track the available energy over space and time (Wright, 1983; Clarke and Gaston, 2006). Indeed, there seems to be a general increase in arthropod species richness and abundance, as well

Climate warming promotes species diversity, but with greater

Plant species richness and warming effects on plant biomass Plant shoot biomass increased nearly threefold from plant monocul- tures to communities with 16 species (b = 0.03, t =2.59,P <0.001,

Biodiversity, Phenology and Temporal Niche Differences

understanding how diversity maintenance mechanisms might differ between species with a history of interaction (natives) and species without a history (exotics) in cases where exotics originated from several continents. We tested for lower species diversity and richness in exotic grasslands and found a negative correlation between species

University of Groningen Effects of herbivores on grassland

on grassland plant diversity Han Olff and Mark E. Ritchie The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work

COEXISTENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN NORTH CAROLINA

over the last 50 yr has halted succession and kept the field as a species-rich grassland. Although certain plant species appear to dominate at specific times of year (e.g., Anthoxanthum odoratum in spring), careful observation reveals a mosaic of common plants that belong to a diversity of families (Fowler and Antonovics, 1981).

Species Interaction Mechanisms Maintain Grassland Plant

Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity Forest I. Isbell,1,3 H. Wayne Polley,2 and Brian J. Wilsey1 department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 USA 2 USD A Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, 808 East Blackland

Biodiversity conservation and the valuation of nature

The contributions of species are difficult to predict and vary over time, space, function and context In 147 grassland experiments 84% plant species promoted ecosystem functioning at least once. Different species acted in different years, places, for different functions and under different environments. Species that promoted one

Rapid recovery of ecosystem function following extreme

Herbaceous richness (number of species/4 m2) and evenness (E var; Smith and Wilson 1996) were both calculated from plant species abundance data. From 2006 to 2017 (excluding 2015 and 2016), we surveyed herbaceous plant community composition near the beginning (January) and

Impact of management on diversity of species-rich grasslands

Semi-natural grasslands in Europe belong to the plant communities with the highest species diversity recorded in detailed scale (Kull & Zobel 1991, Klimeš 1997). They may also host ahigh number of endemic taxa. For example in Slo - vakia more than 75% of endemic taxa grow in grasslands (Šeffer et al. 2002).

Soil fertility increases with plant species diversity in a

eVects ), the interaction of species traits ( interactive fertil-ity eVects ), or both are responsible. Because plant growth is an integrated measure of soil nutrient availability, we used a seedling bioassay to assess how plant diversity in Xu-ences the fertility of soil beneath species-poor and species-rich plant communities.

Interactive effects of landscape history and current

Interactive effects of landscape history and current management on dispersal trait diversity in grassland plant communities Oliver Purschke1,2,3,4*, Martin T. Sykes1, Peter Poschlod5, Stefan G

Plant diversity maintains multiple soil functions in future

115 plant species richness, plant community evenness, the functional diversity of the plant 116 community, and the evenness of multiple soil functions, to explore potential environmental

Prescribed fire: A proposed management tool to facilitate

to describe a species whose presence is crucial i n maintain­ ing the organization and diversity of their ecological community and is exceptional to the rest of the community in its importance (Paine 1969; Mills e/a/. 1993). In an ef­ fort to maximize biodiversity it has been suggested that keystone species be a top priority for protection

Flooding in a grassland diversity experiment:response of

and negative complementarity between different plant species via multiple mechanisms (Eisenhauer, 2012). On the positive side, soil animals can enlarge biotope space, mediate legume effects, increase plant community resistance and maintain plant diversity. But, on the negative

Benefits of multispecies mixtures in grassland systems

Kirwan et al. (2009) Diversity interaction modeling: estimating contributions of species identities and interactions to ecosystem function Ecology 90: 2032-2038. Kirwan et al. (2014) The Agrodiversity Experiment: three years of data from a multisite study in intensively

Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant

Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity FOREST I. ISBELL, 1,3 H. WAYNE POLLEY,2 AND BRIAN J. WILSEY 1 1Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 USA 2USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, 808 East

Biodiversity maintenance mechanisms differ between native and

ones. We experimentally compared species diversity decline between nine-species grassland communities under field conditions to test whether diversity maintenance mechanisms differed between communities containing all exotic or all native species using a pool of 40 species. Aboveground biomass was greater in exotic than native plots, and this

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

High diversity of species functional types (e.g. resource use types, disturbance response types) promotes co-existence through resource partitioning, niche diversification and mutualisms (8). Mechanisms similar to functional complementarity. High diversity of plant-derived resources sustains composition, diversity and function of soil biota

Major shifts in species relative abundance in grassland

establishment in grass legume mixtures may help maintain species diversity and provide additional opportunities for complementarity along a temporal axis (Sanderson, Stout & Brink 2016). Here, we examine the dynamics of relative abundances of multiple species in agronomic grassland mix-tures across a wide pedo-climatic scale of 31 coordinated

Brian J. Wilsey

by different large herbivores in grassland depend on plant species diversity. J. Applied Ecology 2009. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant