Statistical Procedure In Developmental Studies On Species With Multiple Offspring
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Epigenetic markers for identification of body fluids
Mixture studies The ability to obtain reliable results from mixed-source samples should be determined. These studies will assist the laboratory to establish guidelines for mixture interpretation, which may include determination of the number of contributors to the mixture, determination of the major and minor contributor profiles, and
as p 0.05 after a correction of multiple testing hypothesis using the Benjamini and Hochberg procedure. Expression studies. Total RNA was extracted from pools of five em-bryos using Trizol (Invitrogen), and cDNA was synthesized by using Super Script II reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). Quantitative PCR
Assessment Of Embryo Growth In Relation To Parental Life
African Journal of Mathematics and Statistics Studies ISSN: 2689-5323 Volume 3, Issue 2, 2020 (pp. 37-68) 38 www.abjournals.org intestinal cells, or the sexual reproductive organs. In all of these developmental stages, the
Does sexual cannibalism secure genetic benefits of polyandry
studies revealed weak direct and non-additive indirect benefits of multiple mating. In this study, we tested for the presence of additive genetic benefits but again found only inconclusive evidence for adaptive differences in offspring quality between monandrous and polyandrous females.
IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF) VERSUS MULTIPLE OVULATION EMBRYO
Sep 14, 2020 order to stimulate the release of multiple oocytes at the time of ovulation. These superovulated females are AI, and if successful, a number of embryos will be recovered at the time of uterine flushing. Following embryo collection through the uterine flushing procedure, embryo viability is
Extension of cortical synaptic development distinguishes
pression differences between species that were constant across lifespan (Supplemental Fig. S1A), since constant expression dif-ferences predominantly follow neutral divergence patterns and tend to affect multiple tissues (Somel et al. 2011). They are, therefore, less likely to be related to cognitive development. Fur-
Time-variant clustering model for understanding cell fate
developmental biology experiments and poses unique challenges to statistical analysis. The cell fate question and single-cell technologies inspired us to consider a class of statistical problems, which we call time-variant clustering problems. In this class of problems, TSCS data are available for clustering analysis, and the cluster re-
chancy, refreshing - Science
Lack's general procedure is to take quantitative data on a large number of variables, to express (qualitatively) a supposedcorrelation betweentwoofthe variables, and then to interpret the cor-relations and examine their general ap-plicability to other bird groups. The process has somedeficiencies. Statistical estimates ofconfidence are omitted be-
SOURCES OF GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC VARIANCE IN FERTILIZATION
binations to generate multiple sibling relationships (full siblings, paternal, and maternal half siblings), without recourse to female multiple mating or crosses involving inbred lines (see Lynch and Walsh 1998). Such cross-classified designs therefore expand on alternative approaches (e.g., parent-offspring regression, nested
Transgenerational impact of maternal obesogenic diet on
Nov 02, 2018 hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C-4). A protein precipitation procedure was used to extract C-4 from 50 l of mouse serum in the presence of deuterated internal standards. The C-4 level was measured on a SecurityGuard Gemini C18 (4 3 mm) and ACE C8 column (3 m, 100 4.6 mm). C-4 was detected with positive multiple-reaction
Superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle effect
Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) entered into standard use in dairy cattle breeding since commercialization of the industry in the early 1970s, enhancing production of multiple offspring from genetically superior females. However, the efficiency of a superovulation and embryo collection procedure has
EPIDEMIOLOGY Do Mothers from Rich and Well-Nourished
a preponderance of male offspring. These examples aside, other studies (e.g., [1,10,19,30,39]) have provided at best limited support for a link between maternal resource or condition and sex ratio at birth. Proximate mechanisms for this sex-ratio adjustment remain unclear, although it could ultimately result from natural selection having
COMPLEX MIXTURE-ASSOCIATED HORMESIS AND TOXICITY: THE CASE OF
h A series of studies investigated the toxicities of tannery-derived complex mixtures, i.e. vegetable tannin (VT) from Acaciasp. or phenol-based synthetic tannin (ST), and waste-water from tannin-based vs.chromium-based tanneries. Toxicity was evaluated by multiple bioassays including developmental defects and loss of fertilization rate in sea
Contradictory Results in Sex Ratio Studies: Populations Do
Statistical analysis Throughout this study, I used generalised linear models with binomial errors and logit link (Crawley 1993) in the GENMOD procedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 8.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Sex of the first egg or clutch sex ratio was the binomial response variable and trait value was the continuous
Ecological fitness of CA resistant and susceptible strains of
under the same conditions for the developmental expenment. After emergence, at least 50 adults from each of the susceptible and resistant strams were selected randomly and the preoviposition penod ascertamed. The number of offspring per adult was recorded daily until the adults all died. Evaluation of the ecological fitness
Forces driving thermogenesis and parental care in pythons by
All species of python are oviparous and females brood their eggs after ovipostion (Stahlschmidt and DeNardo, 2010). Python eggs are particularly susceptible to the effects of temperature. When eggs are incubated at suboptimal temperature (< 30°C), offspring show increased developmental abnormalities,
Comments from the Reproductive Toxicology and Epidemiology
Jun 10, 2013 of studies, that should be included in the review are unlikely to be fully understood without some application of scientific judgment. Step 3: Extract data from individual studies selected for inclusion using separate template forms for human, animal, and in vitro studies that are customized as needed for specific evaluations. Comments on
Selection and validation of reference genes for gene
with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation.
Impact of SNP calling quality on the detection of
Jun 10, 2021 developmental processes that go from the formation of gametes to fecundation and birth. A few years ago, a statistical methodology was implemented in order to detect TRD signals on a genome-wide scale as a first step to uncover the biological basis of TRD and reproductive success in domestic species.
A CASE STUDY ON APPLICATIONS OF DNA-LEVEL POLYMORPHISMS IN
of sexes. A second procedure, which is less labor intensive, involves the use of hormones to induce sex reversal in fry-stage fish. The third method employs the discovery that hybridization of two different species would produce skewed sex ratios, some of which tend to nearly 100% male offspring. These and other efforts which now include modern
Original Research Article DOI: 10.26479/2018.0403.28
related to the ﬁtness of the offspring . The ability of a parasitoid to distinguish between different age hosts can enhance its performance by preventing wastage of eggs, by avoiding loss of hosts due to multiple attacks, and by saving time of laying eggs . Host discrimination can be used as an
The Development, Predation, and Reproduction of Phytoseiulus
Abstract: Developmental time, predation, and reproduction of Phytoseiulus persimilisAthias-Henriot from Hatay on a diet of Tetranychus cinnabarinusBoisduval larvae and protonymphs at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C (75% ± 10% RH and a 14:10-h L:D (light:dark) cycle) were studied.
Early embryo development is an indicator of implantation
procedure led to the establishment of multiple gestations in many cases, with increased health risks for both mother and offspring. More recently, a greater understanding of embryo physiology has led to improvements in culture conditions (Gardner, 1998) with concomitant increase in embryo viability, thus increasing further the chances of multiple
oxygen reactive species (ROS) as unstable molecules in cells and tissues and the ability of a biological system to detoxify these reactive products. ROS are normally generated as by-products of oxygen metabolism, environmental stressors (ionizing radiations, UV, pollutants, and heavy metals), and xenobiotics (anti-
Do Offspring of Insects Feeding on Defoliation-Resistant
Jan 12, 2015 Finally, offspring of parents that had fed on resistant trees exhibited greater biological performance (pupal mass, developmental time and survival) than the offspring of parents that had fed on susceptible trees when reared on artificial diet (McMorran) and foliage from either resistant or susceptible trees . Subsequent studies found that the
Correlation of Developmental Differences of Nuclear Transfer
cells were shown to have the same developmental potential as adult fibroblasts and cumulus cells17 but greater than lymphocytes.18 In general, the use of fetal and adult somatic cells in nuclear transfer is extremely inefficient in producing live offspring. These studies support the theory that the developmental potential is inversely
ABSTRACT Title of Document: UTILIZING SOCIAL NETWORKS STRUCTURE
Hatchwell 2010). In mammals, mother-offspring relationships are especially strong as young mammals are more dependent on their mothers for longer developmental periods than in many other vertebrates. Stable long-term mother-offspring associations have been described in primates such as rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, (Kapsalis and
A Comparative Study on the Effect of Four Leguminous Species
Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical software . Data were checked for normality prior to analysis. Results and discussions There was a significant difference in the immature development period of C. maculatus on four legume species. It was shortest on cowpea (34.94 ± 0.28 days), and longest on lentil (42.66 ±
Circular Estimate Method (CEM) - a Simple Method to Estimate
sitological studies [14, 18]. Nematode counting should be a simple task and ideally, be cheap, quick, accurate and reliable . However, in practice, counting nematodes is a time-consuming process, prone to errors, which becomes a real challenge when researchers are faced with multiple samples [20, 21].
G Investigation of cell wall composition related to stem
examined a variety of mutants and wild-types.11 Few studies have compared different species of the same genera,12 and so far none has systematically compared various cultivars of the same species, an important application for screening cultivars from multiple phenotypes. Possible stress-induced changes in the levels of cell wall-bound
Complete or partial reduction of the Met receptor tyrosine
functional studies with developmental, cellular, and physiological changes in animal models in which there is genetically reduced or eliminated expression of ASD risk genes [27 29]. The present studies were designed to determine whether the Met-related cellular and electrophysiological phenotypes have specific behavioral consequences.
RAPD analysis of phomopsis fruit rot resistance in eggplant
morphogenetic potential that is useful for developmental studies as well as for establishing biotechnological approaches to produce improved varieties. More than 60 cultivars of eggplant are grown in Bangladesh which shows a wide variation in fruit shape, size, colour and their reaction to disease and insects (Meah et al. 2007).
Between-litter variation in developmental studies of hormones
Abstract Developmental studies of hormones and behavior similar statistical challenges due to between-litter variation fects on offspring development described (Weinstock, 2017, 2008).
Large-brained mammals live longer - Wiley
Large brains have evolved multiple times and in multiple taxa (Jerison, 1973). This is puzzling because a brain disproportionately large for a given body size is metabol-ically expensive (Aiello & Wheeler, 1995; Isler & van Schaik, 2006, 2009a,b) and takes a substantial time to reach structural and functional maturity (Casey et al., 2005).
Metabolic rate covaries with fitness and the pace of the life
(d) Statistical analyses We used two statistical approaches to analyse the data. First, we used a classic multiple regression approach to formally estimate the direction and strength of selection on our three traits of interest (larval mass, and the metabolic rate of two post-settle-ment stages) for the fitness measure of lifetime reproductive
Genetic analysis reveals candidate genes for activity QTL in
offspring, has rendered Astyanax a valuable model in which to investigate evolutionary and developmental phenomena. Included among these features are poorly understood regressive and constructive changes evolving in these and other cave organisms (Jeffery, 2001; Jeffery, 2009). Recently, Astyanax and similar species have emerged as natural
Life History Parameters of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata on
offspring in the total number of progeny (males + females) produced per day. The total sex ratio was assessed as the proportion of female offspring in the total number of progeny (males + females) produced during the life span of the female. Demographic parameters. This study was based on several
Two-Stage Negative Binomial and Overdispersed Poisson Models
developmental toxicity studies of chemical effects on prenatal mortality of litter mates for different animal species. The first dataset comes from a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study of the joint effects of several hazardous chemicals administered to rat dams in several doses (Narotsky, Weller, Chinchilli, and Kavlock 1995).
Host suitability of different instars of the whiteﬂy Bemisia
time, survivorship and offspring sex ratio of E. mundus parasitizing B. tabaci biotype Q Materials and methods Test insects. Experimental hosts and parasitoids (B. tabaci and E. mundus) came from colonies maintained by Koppert Biological Systems S.L. (Águilas Murcia, Spain) originally collected from multiple locations in the provinces