Spine Motility With Synaptic Contact

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Activity-induced targeting of profilin and stabilization of

actin dynamics block dendritic spine motility11,12 and interfere with the development of long-term potentiation (LTP) 13,14.Together,these data suggest that actin may serve as a link between activity-induced modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term changes in synaptic morphology associated with memory consolidation.

Synapse Pathology in Psychiatric and Neurologic Disease

spine morphology is intimately linked to synapse function smaller spines have smaller synapses and support reduced synaptic transmission. The relationship between synaptic signaling, spine shape, and brain function is never more apparent than when the brain becomes dysfunctional. Many psychiatric and neurologic disorders, ranging from mental

Cellular Biomechanics Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

Large heterogeneity is observed in spine mechanical properties, but stiffer spines appear to be associated with axon-like contacts. Spines may stiffen in response to synaptic stimulation, in agreement with recent observations of actin-based stabilization of spine shape (reduced motility) following excitatory treatments.

Stability of dendritic spines and synaptic contacts is

ciated protein, also affected dendritic spine morphology; although the mutant spines could establish synaptic contact with axons. Based on these and other observations26,we have postulated that

New roles for astrocytes in developing synaptic circuits

synaptic sites.32 At sites of synaptic contact, astrocyte processes are preferentially opposed to dendritic spines when compared to presyn-aptic sites and also make contacts at extrasynaptic sites.33 The close apposition of astrocytes and dendrites raises the question of whether astrocytes could influence synapse shape. This is an important

A New Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of Dendritic

tact with the future presynaptic partner, while motility is attenuated for the success-ful maintenance of the synaptic connections (5). In contrast to filopodia, dendritic spines have established synaptic connections, possessing postsynaptic components within the head region of dendritic spines.

The Journal of Physiology - Wiley

the obvious reason of facilitating contact formation between future synaptic partners, spine motility might in addition serve to orchestrate the positioning and reorganization of macromolecular assemblies in spine nanodomains or to modulate the engagement of the spine membrane with extracellular matrix components

Role of astrocyte synapse interactions in CNS disorders

PAPs) contact many synapses, putting them in a position tointeractwithneurons.Thecombinationofanastrocyte process with the pre- and post-synaptic compartments is known as the tripartite synapse (Araque et al. 1999). PAPs are motile, and their motility and synaptic coverage regulates the structure of dendritic spines, the efficiency

Microglia regulate synaptic development and plasticity

suggest that changes in microglial process motility may have altered microglial-synaptic interactions and affected presyn - aptic maturation. In addition to physical contact by microglia, microglia-IL-derived diffusible factors have been shown to regulate syn-apse formation. In 2008, Roumier et al. used mice deficient

Dendritic Spine Viscoelasticity and Soft-Glassy Nature

used contact-mode imaging, but quantitative analysis was limited by dis-tortion of the force curves by viscous effects (hydrodynamic drag on the lever and cell viscosity), adhesion, substrate effects (see Discussion), and possible spine motility within the imaging time. To determine the viscoelasticity of the spines, a different approach was

Neuron, Vol. 35, 1019 1027, September 12, 2002, Copyright

of the phenomenon of spine motility, we encourage the filopodial motility is related to synaptogenesis, and that reader to view some of the movies that document spine filopodia create axo-dendritic contacts, by producing a motility (urls provided below; see also Supplemental virtual dendrite, a cylindrical territory within which the

A role for casein kinase 2a in the Drosophila circadian clock

920 nm) to be ,0.7mm. We found no significant changes in adult spine stability with three different cut-off distances (0.5, 0.7 and 0.9mm), showing that our conclusion of spine stability is not dependent on minor changes in these criteria. Even though slight rotations of shafts and protrusions could either obscure existing spines (suggesting spine

Role of mammalian perisynaptic glia in synapse: 1

synaptic strength Hevin -> Required for ODP in the visual cortex CX30 -> Regulates synaptic contact of astrocytes processes D-serine -> Controls NMDAR-dependent synaptic integration of adult-born neurons MEGF10/MERTK -> Regulates engulfment of unwanted synapses by astrocytes SYNAPSE MODULATION

Biochemical and electrical signaling in dendritic spines

Typically, every spine forms a single excitatory synaptic contact with a presyn-aptic axon. The few orphan spines with-out a synaptic contact are small and lack a true head. They probably represent a small population of spines that are either newly formed or in the process of retrac-tion after losing contact to the presynaptic bouton.

Synapse development and plasticity: roles of ephrin/Eph

shRNA in cultured neurons inhibits spine formation and reduces the number of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic specialization [11,12 ]. Whereas EphB2 knockout mice display reduced synaptic NMDA recep-tors in vivo [13], somewhat surprisingly, synapse for-mation and spine morphology appear to be normal in these mice [13,14]. The discrepancy in the

The Impact of Perineuronal Net Digestion using Chondroitinase

facilitates spine motility (Orlando et al., 2012) alters excitatory synaptic inputs (Bukalo et al., 2007; de Vivo et al., 2013; Saghatelyan et al., 2000) and reduces long term and short term synaptic plasticity in the neocortex (Bukalo et al., 2001; de Vivo et al., 2013; Frischknecht et al.,

Calcium Dynamics in Dendritic Spines and Spine Motility

is that alteration of spine motility will modify the time course of calcium in the dendritic spine and could be tested experimentally. INTRODUCTION A dendritic spine is a small, ;1-mm protrusion consisting of a head, where a synaptic contact is made with an afferent fiber, and a stalk, which connects the head to the parent dendrite.

Spine motility: a means towards an end?

mation of synaptic contacts between central neurons. Together, these data have been considered as evidence for dendritic spine and filopodial motility as an active mechanism for seeking presynaptic axons and initiating synaptic connections therefore maximizing the connec-tion of dendritic arbors with the relatively straighter axonal afferents.

Dendritic Spine Dynamics Pub - University of Arizona

dendritic contact and its stabilization are considered to be the key events in spinogenesis (Kayser et al., 2008; Hotulainen and Hoogen - raad, 2010). However, the dynamics of spine morphogenesis from filopodia has not been fully characterized, and the mechanism of dendritic filopodial motility is poorly understood.

Dynamics Underlying Synaptic Gain Between Pairs of Cortical

contact (t ¼ 0 and 20) is lost at subsequent times (t ¼ 40 and 60). (D) A persistent contact. The arrow marks the site where a dendritic protrusion is in contact with an axon and has accumulated PSD-95; this contact persisted throughout the time series. Time signature in minutes. Dynamics Underlying Synaptic Gain 145 Developmental Neurobiology.

All‐ trans ‐retinoic acid stimulates translation and induces

retinoic acid stimulates translation and induces spine formation in hippocampal neurons through a membrane-associated RAR FASEB J. 22, 236 245 (2008) Key Words: vitamin A cytoskeleton remodeling GluR Dendritic spines provide contact sites for most exci-den-dritic protein synthesis Vertebrates require the vitamin a (retinol) metab-

Dendritic Spines Lost during Glutamate Receptor Activation

staining in spines and blocked spine motility. Throughout spine loss and recovery, presynaptic and postsynaptic elements re-mained in physical proximity. These results suggest that elimi-nation of dendritic spines is not necessarily associated with loss of synaptic contacts. Rapid reestablishment of dendritic

Da Kriege in den Köpfen der Menschen beginnen, Frieden

Da Kriege in den Köpfen der Menschen beginnen, muss in den Köpfen der Menschen Vorsorge für den Frieden getroffen werden. (UNESCO-Charta)

Endoplasmic reticulum visits highly active spines and

Jul 30, 2020 and persisting in a minority of spines. The frequency of spine entry events increased when synapses were active and ER motility was blocked by a myosin Va-based dominant negative construct. Blocking ER motility in individual neurons led to strengthening of synapses and prevented further potentiation by a long-term potentiation protocol.

Review D endritic Spine Pathology: Cause or Consequence of

the reticular nucleus of the thalamus and in the gelatinous often still receive more than one synaptic contact. Spine substance of the spinal cord dorsal horn [238]. density increases during the synaptogenic period. On the dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells in stratum radiatum, for example, spine density doubles between postnatal day 15

261-268 261 Thin, Stubby or Mushroom: Spine Pathology in

arrested spine motility. Interestingly, blocking of the actin-based motor myosin had no effect. Remarkably, highest spine dynamics were seen at the spine tip where the spine is in contact with the presynaptic bouton [14] suggesting a rela-tion between synaptic transmission and spine motility. Inter-

A role for microglia in synaptic plasticity?

vitro with synaptic plasticity10 and in vivo with dendritic spine motility and elimina - tion, as well as ocular-dominance plastic-ity.11-13 However, the cellular sources of MMP-9 and tPA during functional plas-ticity, as well as their ability to achieve the spatial and temporal specificity crucial for synaptic plasticity in the face of fast pro-

Effects of Localized EphB2 Stimulation on Dendritic Filopodia

thought to search the area surrounding dendrites for pre-synaptic axons. Upon contact with axons, they are believed to transform into the mature glutamatergic post-synaptic compartments known as dendritic spines. Through synaptic plasticity, dendritic spines are suggested to play crucial roles in learning and memory formation. While

Microglia motility depends on neuronal activity and promotes

a treatment with CNO resulted in a significant reduction of microglia motility, 30-90 min after application (Fig. 2c; 71,2 ±1.5% vehicle vs. 58,7 ±1,8% CNO). These results indicate that microglia motility depends on neuronal activity in the hippocampus of awake mice. Spine stability is associated with microglia contact rate

2004 by Cell Press Extracellular Matrix and Minireview Visual

Proteolysis Control Spine Dynamics (Left) The basal level of spine motility present during the critical period is increased by 2 days of monocular deprivation. (Right) Exog-enous tPA, by cleavage of adhesion mole-cules and other components of the immature ECM, increases spine motility. The effects of monocular deprivation on spine motility oc-

Proteomics of the Synapse †A Quantitative Approach to

Apr 15, 2021 rated from the dendritic shaft by the spine neck (Figs. 1 and 2). Spine synapses allow for compartmentalization of post-synaptic Ca2 responses (26, 27) and they can continuously change their shape and volume and thus adapt to require-ments of the synaptic contact (15, 17, 28 30). An important role for the topology of the spine synapse is

Gelsolin - A Regulator of Postsynaptic Actin Assembly and

Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic contact sites for the majority of excitatory synapses in the brain. Synaptic activity influences the number, shape and motility of dendritic spines and these effects are likely mediated by dynamic actin filaments, which are highly concentrated in spine heads. Drugs that inhibit

Orenda Lyons Johnson - fsu.digital.flvc.org

When contact between a filopodium and an axon occurs, a functional presynaptic bouton can develop on the axon ( Ziv and Smith, 1996; Ahmari et al., 2000 ), and the long, thin filopodium can transform into a mature spine ( Ziv and Smith, 1996 ).


Our results show Arp2/3 localization within the dendritic spine heads of cultured hippocampal neurons. However, we observed Arp2/3 redistribution within dendritic shafts in response to induced synaptic activity. Temporal inhibition of Arp2/3 function during dendritic spine development showed severe morphological consequence in mature cultures.

The Postsynaptic Architecture of Excitatory Synapses: A More

dilated tip ( head ) of the spine. The dimen-sions of the spine head are highly correlated with the size of the PSD and associated active zone, as well as synaptic strength (16). Synaptic Cleft Separating the PSD and the active zone is the synaptic cleft, which measures ∼20 nm wide in conventional EM and ∼24 nm wide in cryo-EM (17, 18

Neuron, Vol. 27, 11 14, July, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell

filopodia motility prevents normal development of func- duce filopodial motility. This motility would result in in-tional networks, although a causal relationship between discriminate synaptic contact with any nearby axons, filopodia motility, final pattern of synaptic connectivity, again increasing the diversity of the local synaptic pool.


formed into spine synapses without losing synaptic contacts (Fiala et al., 1998; Yuste and Bonhoeffer, 2004). A recent in vivo imaging study with electron microscopic reconstruction of im-aged spines revealed spontaneous appearance of spines without synaptic contacts with axon terminals (Knott et al., 2006). This