# The Entropy Of The Expanding Universe

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### ON THE MAGNETIC FIELD, AND ENTROPY INCREASE, IN A MACHIAN

entropy, in this case, is proportional to the surface area of the event horizon, 4πR2. Here R stands for Schwarzschild s radius, 2GM Notice that in the expanding Universe, the event horizon radius grows with time, which causes increasing entropy for black holes, too. This is a Classical Physics eﬀect, independent of Quantum theory.

### Thermodynamics in the expanding universe

Thermodynamics in the expanding universe We have shown the expansion of the Universe reduces the momentum of indivisual particle proportional to the scale factor p(t) /1=a(t). That means, at earlier times in the Universe, each particle moves with higher and higher momentum. On top of that, the number density of particles increases as the cubic of

### A Novel Perspective - MDPI

in an expanding Universe is concomitant with an increase in perceived cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information, we suggest that the cosmological constant of the quantum

## People Also Ask

### Time evolution of entanglement entropy in holographic FLRW

correlations between two regions in the expanding uni-verse.Evenintheholographicsetup,itisnotaneasytaskto calculate the time-dependent entanglement entropy. In the expanding universe, although it was argued that the RT formula can provide a good leading approximation to the HRT formula [24], one has to use the HRT formula instead

### Cosmology and particle physics - Lehigh University

not changing in an expanding universe. The continuity equation follows from the Friedmann equations that we use to describe our universe which means that the entropy in our universe is conserved. This means it is a useful quantity to keep track of. To do so we recall that the entropy and the energy are extensive quantities which satisfy @ VE= E

### EARLY UNIVERSE WAS HIGHLY FROZEN?!

Entropy regions. Further the frequency of oscillation of Neutrinos in each region shall be considered as variant and increase in order. The void universe shall be considered as the stage before the inner core and outer core of Sun, Earth, Moon begin to rotate on its axis

### Inde nite Information Processing in Ever-expanding Universes

We will rst derive a general limit on entropy pro-duction in an expanding universe and then display some explicit examples of almost-isotropic open universes that permit an in nite amount of entropy to be produced to the future. We stress that these anisotropic universes are general in the sense that they are stable in the class of

### Entropy Production in the Expanding Universe

Conference Proceedings Paper Entropy Production in the Expanding Universe Mehrnoosh Farahmand * and Hosein Mohammadzadeh Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179

### Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science

dynamical systems from those as simple as refrigerators to those as complex as our expanding universe. The laws of thermodynamics involving conservation of energy and nonconservation of entropy are, without a doubt, two of the most useful and general laws in all sciences.

### 1 Arrows of Time - courses.physics.illinois.edu

system increases the entropy, 2) Cosmological: the universe is expanding, 3) biological: life begins at birth and ends at death, 4) psychological: we remember the past not the future, 5) radiative; EM radiation is determined from the source not the target, 6) black holes: there are

### Gravity, entropy, and cosmology: in search of clarity

phase-space volume, ceteris paribus cooling lowers entropy and expanding raises it, and it isn t immediately obvious which should dominate. The genuinely cogent worry is not that the early Universe was in a high-entropy state, nor that it had higher entropy than the present Universe, but

### Quantum thermodynamics for a model of an expanding Universe

entropy-matter relations in expanding cosmological models [3, 6] and entropy bounds for black hole scenarios [7 9]. Matter contributes to the large entropy content of the Universe [3 5]. The emergence of the matter (starting from the vacuum) could be a consequence of the expansion of the spacetime [10 12].

### Expanding Universe Theory

The Expanding Universe Theory is a comprehensive theory that relies on various elements of proof aside from the escape velocities of Galaxies that are attributed to the Doppler red shift. However this Doppler red shift in its present form provides the most compelling evidence for an Expanding Universe.

### THE KALÁM ( kuh LAHM ) ARGUMENT

universe all went back to a single atom, before which nothing existed). If the universe was past eternal, the law of entropy tells us it would have run out of usable energy by now. In 2003, Borde, Guth and Valenki (BGV Theorem) proved that an expanding universe could not possibly be past eternal (not even a multiverse).

### A BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE - livinghopebranch.org

universe had to be either contracting or expanding. Almost immediately, a Dutch astronomer named Willem de Sitter wrote a letter to Einstein telling him that GR theory proved the universe was expanding! If you ran the movie of an expanding universe in reverse, that meant the universe wasn t past eternal, but instead had a beginning!

### The Evolution of the Thermodynamic Equilibrium in the

expanding universe (and subsystems with through Ñow of energy) will increase the amount of information (exergy, potential entropy) and will thereby give room for destruc-tion of more exergy. References 1. Frautschi, S., 1988. Entropy in an expanding universe. Chapter 1, in: H. B. Weber, J. D. Depew and J. D. Smith, Entropy, Information and

### Heat engines and the second law of thermodynamics

the internal energy does not change. However the entropy is larger due to the larger volume. This is an example of a process in which S > 0 and is used as an simple example of an expanding universe. Of course our universe is in uenced by a gravitational potential which needs to be considered in a complete discussion. 5

### Entropy changes in the clustering of galaxies in an expanding

cause the entropy is the quantity most directly changed by increasing or decreasing thermal energy of intraclus-ter gas. The purpose of the present paper is to show how entropy of the universe changes with time in a system of galaxies clustering under the influence of gravitational interaction. Entropy is a measure of how disorganised a system is.

### de Sitter Entropy and the Volume of the Universe after Inflation

de Sitter Entropy S dS = A dS /4G = /GH2 de Sitter - infinite space-time with finite entropy, finite # of states Exponentially expanding Universe Poincaré recurrence t ~ eSdS Decay rate (CdL/HM instantons) > eSdS In Black Hole physics, EFT breaks down after a time t ~ S BH R S , from non-pert. non-local effects

### Particle Physics and Cosmology III

Thermodynamics in expanding Universe An expanding Universe is a closed system and in thermal equilibrium the entropy is conserved ! TdS = d(ρV )+pdV = d((ρ+ p)V)−Vdp = 0 since d((ρ+p)V) = Vdp due to energy conservation; moreover the entropy density is s = S V = ρ+p T. Using the expressions given above we can deﬁne the total energy and

### INFORMATION AND THERMODYNAMIC ENTROPY FROM THE STANDPOINT OF

partially feasible, because the decrease in the information detected by a local observer in an expanding Universe leads to an increase in detected cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information entropy, we suggest that the quantum

### Life, gravity and the second law of thermodynamics

describe how free energy and low entropy radiation from the Sun maintains the low entropy structures of Earth. We review the entropy of photons in an expanding universe in Section 3 and consider the relationship between gravity and entropy in Section 4. We conclude by discussing the heat death of the universe (Section 5). Our goal is to under-

### Quantum entanglement in inflationary cosmology

entropy in the AdS space with a dS boundary which repre-sentsanexpandingspacetime.Onthistime-dependentspace-

### Before the Big Bang: An Outrageous New Perspective and its

considerably larger entropy (and, for a continually expanding universe, we should consider even larger values than this), but this value represents a usable lower bound. Recalling the logarithm in Boltzmann s formula (a natural logarithm, but that is of no concern), we get that the volume of P is greater than that of B by a factor that exceeds

### Chapter 22 The Entropy of the Universe and the Maximum

22.1.1 Expansion of the Universe is Isentropic Since 1929, we have known that the universe is expanding. This expansion is isentropic [1, 6]. That is, the entropy of relativistic particles such as photons,

### An inflationary explanation to the initial entropy problem

gravitational entropy of the universe. 2.2 Entropy of the observable universe The entropy literature makes a distinction between system and environment when determining the rate at which the entropy of the system is increasing Þ ä Þ × ç and the rate at which total entropy is increasing ê.

### ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Universe Surroundings System Enthalpy Entropy ∆HSurroundingsSystem If ∆SSystem = 0, then ∆SUniverse = ∆SSurroundings = (∆H/T)System In this pictorial representation, the system is shown qualitatively with an original enthalpy and entropy. In the surroundings - the rest of the universe - the origi-nal state is shown blank, since the

### ON THE MAGNETIC FIELD, AND ENTROPY INCREASE, IN A MACHIAN

entropy, in this case, is proportional to the surface area of the event horizon, 4πR2. Here R stands for Schwarzschild s radius, 2GM Notice that in the expanding Universe, the event horizon radius also should grow with time, due to the isotropy and homogeneity of the Universe, which causes increasing entropy for black holes, too.

### Cosmology, Entropy and the Philosophy of Inventions. Date

The Fate of the Universe. If the repulsion from dark energy is or becomes stronger than Einstein's prediction, the universe may be torn apart by a future big rip, during which the universe expands so violently that first the galaxies, then the stars, then planets and finally atoms come unglued in a catastrophic end of time. Currently this idea

### Reacting ﬂuids in the expanding Universe: A new mechanism for

Reacting ﬂuids in the expanding Universe: A new mechanism for entropy production Winfried Zimdahl Fakult¨at f¨ur Physik, Universit¨at Konstanz, PF 5560 M678 D-78434 Konstanz, Germany (February 7, 1997) It is shown that two reacting cosmological ﬂuids, each of them perfect on its own, which exchange

### Energy Flows in Low-Entropy Complex Systems

low-entropy order within increasingly disordered seas of surrounding, high-entropy chaos. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of all such systems in the expanding Universe, including galaxies, stars, planets, life, society, and machines. A large amount of empirical

### Entropy Changes in the clustering of Galaxies in an expanding

expanding gases to cool down, and therefore there is a probability that the entropy has to decrease which gets confirmed from our theoretical calculations as shown in figures. Every thing from gravitational clustering to supernova are contributors to entropy budget of the universe.

### Adiabatic Expansion of the Universe

idea that the universe will stop expanding and start contracting someday is not right. Other two kinds of Friedmann model state that the expansion of the universe is an irreversible process. Adiabatic processes are characterized by an increase in entropy if they are irreversible [4].

### Quantum thermodynamics for a model of an expanding Universe

in expanding cosmological models [3, 6] and entropy bounds for black hole scenarios [7, 8, 9]. Matter contributes to the large entropy content of the universe [3, 4, 5]. The emergence of

### Explaining Low Entropy - Columbia University

foundations: explaining the requisite low-entropy past state of the universe. Equipped with a low-entropy initial condition and a fundamental analogue to the Second Law (such as the Boltzmannian statistical mechanics reviewed in this paper), one can arguably4 capture nature s abovementioned asymmetries. But this is not so easy to justify.

### Does information entropy play a role in the expansion and

ﬂuctuations making such a Universe entropically unfavourable. We ﬁnd that in an expanding Universe,the conﬁgurationentropyrate is governedbytheexpansionrate ofthe Universeand the growth rate of density ﬂuctuations. The conﬁguration entropy rate becomes smaller but

### INCREASING ENTROPY: HEAT DEATH OR PERPETUAL HARMONIES?

into heat, which in its turn disperses into an ever-expanding universe. This final condition was termed heat death This scenario fit well with the existentialist philosophies that arose out of the Great War at the beginning of the 20th century: Reality marches uniformly into disorder and its accompanying mean-inglessness.

### Entropy of cosmological black holes and generalized second

In the pure expanding ﬂat FLRW universe dominated by phantom energy, the radius of the observer s event horizon diminishes with time and consequently the horizon entropy, S˙ H < 0.

### Entropy in an Expanding Universe

initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding causal region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its