MTOR Is Required For Pulmonary Arterial Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Under Chronic Hypoxia

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Thrombin-mediated activation of Akt signaling contributes to

idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and CTEPH, which may potentially be a novel therapeutic target. Introduction Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) results from migration and persistence of throm-boemboli, usually from the deep leg veins, into the proxi-mal pulmonary arterial vasculature (Dartevelle et al. 2004).

Mechanism and Management of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced

tion (vasoconstriction). In addition, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet aggregation, throm-bosis, and leukocyte adsorption to the vascular endo-thelium occur, promoting vascular endothelial dysfunc-tion and the formation of plaque. On the other hand, vascular endothelial dysfunction and hypoxia promote

mTOR is required for pulmonary arterial vascular smooth

The FASEB Journal Research Communication mTOR is required for pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation under chronic hypoxia Vera P. Krymskaya,*,†,‡ Jennifer Snow,* Gregory Cesarone,* Irene Khavin,*

hypertension NIH Public Access metabolism, proliferation and

activation that is required for PAVSMC proliferation.8 Second, mTORC2 stimulates glycolysis and up-regulates expression of HIF1α in certain cell types.13-14 Third, NADPH oxidase Nox4, an important regulator of pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH15, increases P-S473-Akt in human PAVSMC under chronic hypoxia16 and contributes to

Transglutaminase 2-mediated serotonylation in pulmonary

Nov 07, 2013 Among these are pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and contraction, hallmarks of pulmo-nary arterial hypertension (PAH) (19, 52). Cell signaling in PASMCs produced by 5-HT occurs through multiple pathways that include MAPK, Rho/ROCK, and Akt (Fig. 2). There is interaction between these pathways

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (mTORC2) Coordinates

PA vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMCs) in idiopathic PAH (IPAH) have increased expression of hypoxia-inducible Background Enhanced proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and metabolic shift to glycolysis of pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (PAVSMCs) are key pathophysiological components of pulmonary vascular remodeling

PULMONARY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

chronic hypoxia. us, Nogo-A/B− mice did not display enhanced pulmonary arte-rial pressure or wall thickness, pulmonary artery pseci c vascular clel proliefration, or right ventricular hypertrophy but did show increased apoptosis in p ulmonary ar-tery smooth muscle cells, which is consis-tent with the lack of vascular cell prolifera-

mTOR: A Key to Both Pulmonary Vessel Remodeling and Right

Goncharova EA. mTOR is required for pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation under chronic hypoxia. FASEB J 2011;25:1922 1933. 7. Goncharov DA, Kudryashova TV, Ziai H, Ihida-Stansbury K, DeLisser H, Krymskaya VP, Tuder RM, Kawut SM, Goncharova EA. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) coordinates pulmonary

Hypoxia induces pulmonary arterial fibroblast proliferation

signaling pathway serves an important role in cell proliferation, metabolism, protein synthesis and angiogenesis (24,25). PI3K may be triggered by a variety of upstream signals and regulates Hypoxia induces pulmonary arterial fibroblast proliferation, migration, differentiation and vascular remodeling via the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway

Effects of intermittent hypoxia on pulmonary haemodynamics

pulmonary vascular bed it was demonstrated that hypoxia constricts pulmonary muscular arteries, vessels of ,1mmin diameter. [9 12]. Despite many years of extensive investiga-tions, the mechanism of HPV is still under debate. A current theory suggests that reduced oxygen pressure inhibits smooth muscle cell voltage dependent potassium

Pharmacological Inhibition of mTOR Kinase Reverses Right

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling, increased pulmonary artery (PA) pressure, right-heart afterload and death. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation, survival, and pulmonary vascular remodeling via two functionally

Pulmonary Hypertension and Cardiopulmonary Exercise in Heart

constriction and cell proliferation effects occur more likely [21]. Increases in ET-1 and pulmonary vascular remodeling by proliferation and hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells due to the upregulation of ET A receptors may contribute significantly to the progression of PH [7, 22]

Elena Goncharova, Ph.D.

K, Jones PL, Goncharova EA. mTOR is Required for Pulmonary Arterial Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Under Chronic Hypoxia. The FASEB Journal. 2011;25(6):1922-1933.

Endothelial cell-related autophagic pathways in Sugen/hypoxia

Nov 28, 2016 pulmonary vascular endothelial cell (EC) alterations associated with PAH. This study investigated the time-dependent role of the au-tophagic pathway in pulmonary vascular ECs and pulmonary vascular EC kinesis in a severe PAH rat model (Sugen/hypoxia rat) and evaluated whether timely induction of the autophagic pathway by rapamycin improves PAH.

Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension Laurent P. Nicod Pulmonary division, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has often been misdiagnosed in the past, due to the poor specificity of symptoms early in the disease until the appearance of right heart failure. Al-though primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)

Functions of serotonin in hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling.

These appear required for pulmonary vascular cell proliferation, which depends on the ratio between reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. A heterozygous mutation was identified in the 5-HT2B receptor gene of a patient who developed pulmonary hypertension after fenfluramines anorexigen treatment. This C-terminus

The cancer theory of pulmonary arterial hypertension

Dec 09, 2016 tion of FOXO1 in smooth muscle cells was shown to induce PH, whereas constitutive activation of FOXO1 had the opposite effect.23 mTOR signaling The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a pivotal regulator of cellular metabolism, cell proliferation, and survival.25,26 mTOR is a serine-threonine kinase that

RESEARCH Open Access Differential effects of formoterol on

Pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (PAVSM) cell proliferation is one of the key pathophysiological components of vascular remodeling in pulmonary hyper-tension (PH) [1,2]. PH is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is strongly associated with decreased quality of life,