Metonymy As A Prototypical Category

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Verena Haser (2005) Metaphor, Metonymy, and Experientialist

3.1 Metaphor and metonymy Haser s Chapter 2 provides a valuable comprehensive overview of theories that have attempted to distinguish metaphor from metonymy. She notes that varying definitions and approaches may single out quite different lists of expressions in either category. Still, here, too, a cautious reading is advised.


Th e characterization of metonymy as a conceptual tool for guiding inferencing in language has opened a new fi eld of study in cognitive linguistics and pragmatics. To appreciate the value of metonymy for pragmatic inferencing, metonymy should not be viewed as performing only its prototypical referential function. Metonymic mappings are operative

Eating Terms: What the Category Reveals about the Thai Mind

category which is complex in nature. There is a small number of the category members inherently containing the eating sense. Others are used via idealized cognitive models like metonymy and metaphor. The category also shows the relationship among its members, where non-prototypical members are extended from the prototypical scenario in the form

Chapter 4 Prototype theory

The starting-point of the prototypical conception of categorial structure is sum-marized in the statement that when describing categories analytically, most traditions of thought have treated category membership as a digital, all-or-none phenomenon. That is, much work in philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and anthropology assumes that categories

Title: Linguistic and pictorial metonymy in advertising Name

3. An analysis of linguistic and pictorial metonymy in e-business advertising Let us have a closer look at the above-introduced typology of metonymies by applying it to my data. We will start with the target-in-source metonymy. Our first example of this type of metonymy may be identified in the Hitachi advertisement (see Figure 1).

The conceptualisation of science terminology: A cognitive

radial category along with its prototypical and peripheral meanings, and the main factors in projecting the idealised cognitive models (ICMs) where the radial categories are formed: conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy. The results indicate that

Culture and Conceptualisation of Scientific Terms: An

subcategory can be more prototypical than another, it constitutes the source from which the other meanings are projected (Lakoff 1987). The extension of a word meaning is motivated by a cognitive mechanism, notably metaphor or metonymy (Lakoff and Johnson 2003). As the polysemy, prototype, conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy of a

Handout 8: Semantics II -

We understand the meaning of a word because we have a prototypical concept of the category to which the thing belongs. The closeness of a word to the prototype determines whether the word (or its referent) is a more or less good exemplar of a category. 3.1 Experimental and other evidence for prototype effects (from Lakoff 1987: 41-42 and


Key words: emotion, emotional category, conceptual metonymy, conceptual metaphor, corpus-based research, embodied cultural conceptualization, structure of lexical concept Epistemological problems of the categorization and communication of emotion and other subjective states The entanglement of the body and culture

Toward the understanding of humorous metonymies: A corpus

perspectives (i.e., metonymy as a referential phenomenon and metonymy as a prototypical category) into account for a better understanding of metonymies creating a humorous effect. Keywords: humor; sarcasm; metonymy; protypicality; inferencing. References Feyaerts, Kurt (2000). Refining the inheritance hypothesis: interaction between metaphoric and

Metonymy via Perfectivization of Russian Verbs

Peirsman & Geeraerts (2006) approach metonymy by selecting a differ-ent strategy from among those that have been successful for cognitive lin-guists, namely radial categories based on prototypes.1 Peirsman & Geer-aerts new definition offers a radial category based on the prototypical core

The Application of Cognitive Linguistic Theories to English

(category members) is not equal. The prototypical equivalents (center members or prototype) are 姑娘 and 少女 , and the -typical equivalents others are non (peripheral members). Referring to prototypical equivalents, the non-typical equivalents aggregate into a cluster according to its family resemblance to pro-totypical equivalents.

The Application of Prototype Category Theory in College

Prototype category theory makes up for the shortcomings and deficiencies of traditional category theory in terms of paraphrase. It is a concept of meaning which is completely different from traditional semantic theory. For this reason, teachers should consciously apply prototype category theory in

Prototypes, Metaphors, Metonymies and Imaginative Rationality

example of a category (Lakoff, 1987, p. 43). Prototypes lie at the center in the radial structure of categories. Metaphors may be used to extend this structure or to link it with other categories through the identification of elements in dis-parate domains. A metaphor or a metonymy may or may not be prototypical,


ships that hold among its members. The relationship of category exten-sion is the best known; this is the relationship between prototypical members of a category and peripheral members. The status of category boundaries, and the more general or schematic concepts that delimit category membership, are more in dispute (see, for example, Cruse 1992).

Metonymy and the semantics of word formation

Allan herself (2008: 13) proposes that there is a cline between metaphor and metonymy, each of which is a prototypical category. Another approach might be simply to draw a distinction between literal and non-literal, although even that is difficult to maintain: is leg in table leg a

Cognitive Teaching of English Polyseme

Conversely, animal belongs to the higher level category than bird. - superordinate level. Semantically, different levels are inherently linked. People view metonymy as a prototypical category, and take part-for-whole as the prototype. In this way, different levels of category constitute a metonymic relationship.

Structuring and (Re)creating the Affective value of Emotional

conceptual mapping is related to the theories of conceptual metaphor and conceptual metonymy. By virtue of metaphorical mappings and metonymical profiling the (embodied) meaning of the source domain A is pro-jected on to the target domain B. This approach suggests that phenomena of the core affect, prototypical categories and

The Polysemy of PO in Mandarin Chinese finalized

category A prototype of a category is thus viewed as a salient exemplar of the category. Some instances of a category are more typical than others and hence emerge in human s mind more easily. For example, robin is a representative, prototypical instance of the category

Research on English Vocabulary Teaching Based on Cognitive

relationship between lexical prototypical meaning, prototype meaning and other meaning, not only can make the student to deepen the understanding of this one vocabulary, but also can reduce the burden of students memorize vocabulary. 3.2 Construction of metaphor and metonymy semantic network.

Embodiment and Image Schemas: Interpreting the Figurative

category of English phrasal verbs, it is argued that within the construct of an English phrasal verb, the particle denotes, at a primary level, physical concepts, namely space and motion. However, by means of cognitive processes such as metaphor and metonymy, the prototypical senses of the particle shift and extend into abstract senses.

Handout 9: Semantics III

- Order of acquisition: Children learn prototypical members of categories before more peripheral members. 2.2 Family resemblance a category can be held together by a network of overlapping similarities among its members, even if for some pairs of members there is not a single shared feature (cf.

Metonymy representation in English monolingual learners

drew attention of the linguistic community to metonymy as a category distinct from metaphor: Metaphor and metonymy are different kinds of processes. Metaphor is principally a way of conceiving of one thing in terms of another, and its primary function is understanding. Metonymy, on the other hand, has

The Use of Metonymy in Business Linguistic Culture

category businesswoman illustrates this point. We tend to think of the category woman in terms of this stereotypical member even if the submember remains unnamed. Since most categories have prototypical structure, we may conclude that all categories have metonymic structure.

Conceptual Metonymy in the Speech Act of Request

1.2 Conceptual metonymy Since ancient times, the phenomenon of metonymy has been well known, firstly in rhetoric and literature within which, as a major trope (later a figure of speech), performed the function of a change of name, which, actually, is the very meaning of the term itself. Much time later, metonymy, along with metaphor, has


predominate: metaphor from metonymy and metonymy within metaphor. The cognition-based perspectives were given to explain away why the other types (i.e. metonymy from metaphor, metaphor within metonymy and demetonymization in a metaphorical context) are rare or impossible in general. He observed that metonymy and metaphor,- though clearly

Cognitive Linguistics: Categories, Frames, Image Schemas, and

Radial category/polysemy networks show the structure of a category by encoding links between related senses of a word o Remember mother was one example of a radial category o Consider game: prototype (e.g. poker game) + for fun + involves props + requires skill + chance + competition + risk language game; charades + for fun - involves props

On Contiguity Relationships and the Nature of Metonymic Shift

3. Many examples of metonymy do not show up in language. The stereotypical HOUSEWIFE MOTHER subcategory, for example, which metonymically stands for the entire MOTHER category, does not have a name of its own (Lakoff 87). 4. Metonymy is used in reasoning and serves the function of providing understanding. a.

Prototypicality Among Metaphors: On the Relative Frequency of

spatial metaphors may be the prototypical metaphor, which is more common than all other types of metaphor, especially including metaphors generated by and for children. To provide a basis for comparison, I also examined the relative frequency of personification (e.g., Fortune is a woman ), another obvious and easily

Metaphor Processing, Psychology of - Northwestern University

as category statements. In the Attributive Category theory of Glucksberg and his colleagues, meta-phors are understood as class inclusion statements The idea is that in a metaphor one asserts that the topic is a member of the category of which the vehicle is a prototypical member: for example, the metaphor 'A suburb is a parasite' asserts that

Metaphor and Metonymy in Language and Thought: A Cognitive

Metaphor and Metonymy in Language and Thought: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach Abstract Cognitive Linguistics (CL) is a cover term for some functionalist and cognitivist approach-es to the study of language that emerged in the 1970s and share basic theoretical and meth-

Cognitive Zolta´n Ko¨vecses

fine the category. The category as a whole has properties as parts. In the sentence Boys will be boys thefirst boys indicates the categoryof boys as a whole, while thesecond indicates the typical qualities, or features, of boys, such as being unruly (ie we have the metonymy CATEGORY FOR PROPERTY). That is to say, a

The Cognitive Linguistics Reader Benjamin Bergen and Jörg

The conceptual nature of metonymy is even more clearly manifested in the structure of categories. In his discussion of metonymic models, Lakoff (1987: 79-90) demonstrates that a member of a category may stand for the whole category and thereby account for prototype effects. His example of the

Metonymy: Hidden Shortcuts in Language, Thought and Communication

reached that metonymy is a basic cognitive and conceptual mechanism that is experientially grounded. Jeannette Littlemore s Metonymy: Hidden Shortcuts in Language, Thought and Communication is a valuable textbook in which it summarizes the surprisingly broad range of works on metonymy into a relatively concise volume.


processing (Fauconnier 1999). The role of metonymy in them is evidence both of the conceptual nature of metonymy and of the fact that metonymy is not confined to lexical meaning. 3.1 Metonymy in cognitive models Lakoff (1987: 77-90) claims that category models (i.e., ICMs and frames) are often organized around a metonymy-based prototype.

Zone Activation Is Not Metonymization

of metonymy. The transferred designation based on the Part-Whole relationship is the definitional features of synecdoche, which normally is regarded as a special category of metonymy. To be specific, the cases in which the target entities have been conceptualized and lexicalized are metonymies rather

Verbal diminutives: Not so weird after all?

Adjectives are less prototypical ! involve metonymy from object to property ! reference points less concrete Verbs are furthest from the prototype ! involve additional metaphor ACTIONS ARE OBJECTS ! actions as reference points ! being less prototypical, verbal diminutives are less widespread across languages 8 7/5/13

Quantitative Approaches to Metonymy

conventional metonymy. In H. Bunt, editor, Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Computational Semantics, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Y. Peirsman and D. Geeraerts. forthc. Metonymy as a prototypical category. To appear in Cognitive Linguistics.

Prototype Theory and Translation Equivalent Selection: The

relation of prototype effects to polysemy, metonymy and metaphor (Lakoff 1987; Taylor 1989), (10) introducing the notions of membership and centrality gradience (Lakoff 1987), (11) explaining the fact that prototypicality itself is a prototype category, and similar related issues.